Headline: Birth and Death of Jacob / Israel, Joseph, and the 12th Dynasty of Egypt Chronology (2006 BC – 1805 BC)

Image: Joseph Tomb Egypt

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qxw1h-iJ_qE

Date Range: 2006 BC – 1805 BC

People: Amenenhat III, Asher, Benjamin, Bilhah, Dan, Esau, Gad, Issachar, Jacob / Israel, Joseph, Judah, Laban, Leah, Levi, Naphtali, Rachel, Reuben, Senusret II, Senusret III, Simeon, Zebulun, Zilpah

The history of the 12th Dynasty of Egypt is intertwined with the lives of Jacob and Joseph. Jacob and Esau were born in 2006 BC when Isaac was 60 years old. Shortly after, in 1991 BC, the 12th Dynasty of Egypt began with the rise to power of Amenemhat I. The 12th Dynasty was composed of eight pharaohs that ruled from 1991 BC to 1802 BC. This dynasty left behind a significant amount of artifacts, including papyri, pyramids, stelae, temples, and more. There was also a significant amount of interactions between Egypt and its neighbors, which has allowed for a fairly accurate chronology. Although the Book of Genesis does not provide specific information about which pharaoh was involved in specific situations, there is enough evidence, both internally and externally, to support the existence of the nation of Israel in Egypt during the 12th Dynasty. Joseph was born in Haran in 1915 BC when Jacob was 91 years old and when Amenemhat II was pharaoh. At the age of 17, Joseph was given a multi-colored coat by his father and eventually sold into slavery by his brothers. Joseph was purchased by Potiphar. Joseph eventually gained the trust of Potiphar and served as the master of his household. At the age of 30, in 1885 BC, Joseph was promoted to the second in charge of all of Egypt by Senusret II. 1878 BC marks the end of the seven years of plenty and the death of Senusret II. Two years into the seven years of famine, Jacob and family settle into the land of Egypt in the region of Goshen. Goshen is in the exact same area as Avaris, Ezbet Rushdi, Peru-nefer, Pi-Ramesses, Rowaty, and Tell el Dab’a. In 1860 BC, Amenemhat III became co-regent of Egypt, and a year later, Jacob died at the age of 147. Joseph died at the age of 110 in 1805 BC, and the 12th Dynasty of Egypt ended in 1802 BC.

Bible Verses: Genesis 25:19-28, 28:10-22, 29:1-35, 30:1-43, 31:41, 35:16-29, 37:1-2, 37:12, 37:28, 37:36, 41:25-46, 46:27, 47:27-28, 50:22-26

Amenenhat III
Avaris, Goshen, Peru-nefer, Pi-Ramesses, Rowaty, Tell el Dab’a
Israelite Sojourn in Egypt Video (Part One)
Israelite Sojourn in Egypt Video (Part Two)
Sebek-khu Stele
Senusret II
Senusret III
Temple of Ezbet Rushdi
Turin King List

Topic Questions:
1. Who was Jacob’s twin brother?
2. Who is Laban?
3. How old was Jacob when Joseph was born?
4. How many years of plenty and years of famine did Joseph declare from the dream?
5. How many male children did Jacob have?
6. How old was Joseph when he was sold into slavery?
7. How old was Joseph when he became the second most powerful person in Egypt?
8. How old was Jacob when he entered Egypt, and how old was he when he died?
9. How old was Joseph when he died?
10. Who were the two son’s of Joseph?
11. Which pharaohs did Joseph serve under?
12. What is the significance of Tell el-Dab’a?

There has been much study on the chronology and timeline of both Egypt and Israel. For any conclusion made, there are many who disagree. Because of this, consensus is not the objective. Based on the best evidence and conclusions available, what do they tell us? One possible scenario is that Joseph had a profound effect on the history of both Egypt and Israel. Joseph was born at a time of astronomy, writing, mathematics, construction, and political stability. He must have had some special gifts / talents, for he entered Egypt as a slave at the age of 17 and became the second most powerful person in the empire by the age of 30. The Egyptian name given to Joseph was something similar to the Hebrew version given as Zaphenath-Paaneah. The meaning of his name is related to his ability to interpret dreams. Joseph demonstrated ability and trust when he ran Potipher’s household. Upon his promotion, he ran the nation of Egypt the same way he ran Potipher’s household. Based on the timeline provided below, Joseph was promoted by Senusret II at the beginning of the seven years of plenty. At the end of these seven years, Senusret II died and Senusret III took over as pharaoh. The seven years of famine occurred during the first seven years of his reign, and Jacob entered the land of Egypt during the second year of the famine. Because of Joseph’s leadership and design of how food was distributed, the pharaoh that Joseph served under during the famine became very powerful and wealthy. In order for a person to obtain food from Egypt, something must be traded, such as money, land, or themselves as slaves. Historical and archaeological evidence demonstrates this consolidation of power and wealth under Senusret III. A question arises related to the two decade long co-regency of Senusret III and Amenemhat III. What was the cause of this? The extended length of this co-regency is abnormal. The timeline may give us a clue. Perhaps Jacob fell ill and Joseph stepped down to take care of his father and family. This would have left a significant gap in the leadership of Egypt. It is possible that Amenemhat III stepped into this role. Then when Jacob died and wanted to be buried in Canaan, Amenemhat III led an expedition into Canaan. Although this narrative is not conclusive, the evidence does suggest this narrative.

Timeline and Chronology:
1802 BC: End of 12th Dynasty of Egypt
1805 BC: Joseph Died at Age 110.
1814 BC: Death of Nimaatre Amenemhat III
1839 BC: Death of Khakaure Senusret III.
1859 BC: Jacob / Israel Died at Age 147.
1860 BC: Year 1 of Nimaatre Amenemhat III (6th Pharaoh 12th Dynasty) as Co-regent.
1876 BC: Jacob Enters Egypt at Age 130.
1878 BC: Death of Khakheperre Senusret II / Year 1 of Khakaure Senusret III (5th Pharaoh 12th Dynasty).
1885 BC: Joseph Promoted.
1895 BC: Death of Nubkaure Amenemhat II (3rd Pharaoh 12th Dynasty)
1897 BC: Year 1 of Khakheperre Senusret II (4th Pharaoh 12th Dynasty) as Co-Regent.
1898 BC: Joseph Obtains Multi-Colored Coat From Jacob and Sold into Slavery.
1915 BC: Joseph Born
1991 BC: Start of 12th Dynasty of Egypt
2006 BC: Jacob and Esau Born When Isaac Was 60.

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