Headline: Amaziah, Jeroboam II, Azariah / Uzziah, Earthquake, Amos, Bur Sagale Solar Eclipse, Jonah, Hosea (796 BC – 753 BC)
Date Range: 796 BC – 753 BC
People: Amaziah, Amos, Ashur-dan III, Azariah / Uzziah, Hosea, Jeroboam II, Jonah, Sarduri II, Shoshenq V, Takelot III
Amos 1:1 states that Amos began the work as God’s prophet two years before the earthquake during the reigns of Uzziah king of Judah, and Jeroboam II king of Israel. This verse is the key to unlocking much. Based on this verse, the earthquake occurred during the reigns of Uzziah and Jeroboam II. 2 Kings 14:23, 2 Kings 15:1, and 2 Chronicles 26:3 provide a bit more information. Jeroboam II began to reign in the 15th year of Amaziah, king of Judah and father of Uzziah. He reigned for 41 years. Azariah / Uzziah, son of Amaziah, began to reign at the age of 16 and reigned for 52 years. The following verses help develop a timeline between Jehu (841 BC – 814 BC) and Jeroboam II (793 BC – 753 BC) / Uzziah (792 BC – 739 BC):
2 Kings 12:1 – Year 7 of Jehu = Year 1 of Jehoash.
2 Kings 13:1 – Year 23 of Joash (Jehoash) = Year 1 of Jehoahaz.
2 Kings 13:10 – Year 37 of Joash = Year 1 of Jehoash.
2 Kings 14:1 – Year 2 of Joash son of Joahaz, king of Israel, Amaziah, son of Joash, king of Judah, began to reign.
This is where things get a bit tricky. Let’s assume for a moment that Jeroboam II began his reign in 793 BC (which most scholars agree). On face value, 2 Kings 15:1 would lead us to conclude that Uzziah began his 52 year reign in the 27th year of the reign of Jeroboam II. This would mean that Uzziah reigned from approximately 767 BC to 715 BC. This statement is in direct conflict with 2 Kings 18:9-10, which states that Hezekiah was king of Judah and Hoshea was king of Israel when the Assyrians captured the Northern Kingdom of Israel in 722 BC.
2 Chronicles 25:23 provides the solution to this apparent conflict. 2 Chronicles 25:1 states that Amaziah was king for 29 years. However, 2 Chronicles 25:23 states that Amaziah was captured in battle about 4 years into his reign by King Joash of Israel. It was at this time that Uzziah was made king of Judah at the age of 16. There was a co-regency of about 25 years for Amaziah and Azariah / Uzziah. Amaziah began to reign in 796 BC, and Uzziah became co-regent at the age of 16 in 792 BC. Jeroboam II’s 41 year reign was 793 BC to 753 BC. Amaziah died in 767 BC at which time Uzziah became the sole king of Judah until his death in about 739 BC.
This information now gives us a time frame for the earthquake. Amos 1:! states that is was during the times of kings Uzziah and Jeroboam II. Uzziah became sole regent in 767 BC and Jeroboam II died in 753 BC. Most scholars agree that there was an earthquake between 7.8 and 8.2 on the Richter Scale centered near modern day Bar Elias, Lebanon, which occurred about 760 BC. As a comparison, the San Francisco earthquake on April 18, 1906, was 7.8 on the Richter Scale. The Bar Elias earthquake is also the same time period of the Bur Sagale solar eclipse of June 15, 763 BC.
Ashur-dan III was the king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from 773 BC to 755 BC. Aakheperre Shoshenq V (767 BC – 730 BC) of the 22nd Dynasty was pharaoh of Lower Egypt. Usermaatre Setepenamun Takelot III (774 BC – 759 BC) of the 23rd Dynasty was pharaoh of Upper Egypt. Very little is known about the Assyrian and Egyptian Empires during this time. Both empires were in decline. With both empires in decline, it allowed the Urartian Kingdom in Anatolia and Israel / Judah in the Levant to flourish. The Urartian Kingdom under Sarduri II (764 BC – 735 BC), Israel under Jeroboam II, and Judah under Uzziah were expanding.
2 Kings 14:23-25 states that Jonah lived during the time of Jeroboam II. Hosea 1:1 states that Hosea the prophet lived during the time of kings Jeroboam II, Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah. This means that Amos, Hosea, and Jonah were all prophets during the reigns of Jeroboam II and Uzziah.
– 1906 San Francisco Earthquake Video
– 22nd Dynasty of Egypt
– 23rd Dynasty of Egypt
– Amos Earthquake Evidence
– Amos Earthquake Impact
– Ashur-dan III
– Divided Kingdom (pages 14-18)
– King Uzziah Expansionist Policy
– King Uzziah Digging for Truth Video
– Neo-Assyrian Empire
– Sarduri II
1. What year was the earthquake, and how strong was it?
2. Where did the earthquake occur?
3. What is Bur Sagale, and when did it happen?
4. What major events occurred during the times of Amos and Jonah?
Kings Jeroboam II and Uzziah both had long reigns. Assyria was weak and ruled by King Ashur-dan III. Egypt was weak and ruled by Shoshenq V and Takelot III. The kingdoms of Israel and Judah expanded. Things shifted in the 760s BC. King Amaziah died in 767 BC, there was a significant solar eclipse in 763 BC, and there was a massive earthquake centered in Lebanon circa 760 BC. This is the times and environment in which God’s prophets Amos and Jonah served.
Timeline and Chronology:
796 BC: Year 1 of King Amaziah of Judah
793 BC: Year 1 of King Jeroboam II of Israel
792 BC: Capture of King Amaziah / Year 1 of Reign of King Azariah of Judah
774 BC: Year 1 of Takelot III
773 BC: Year 1 of Assyrian King Ashur-dan III
767 BC: Death of King Amaziah of Judah / Year 1 of Shoshenq V
763 BC, June 15: Bur Sagale Solar Eclipse
760 (+/- 7) BC: Earthquake of Amos 1:1
759 BC: Death of Takelot III
755 BC: Death of Assyrian King Ashur-dan III
753 BC: Death of King Jeroboam II of Israel
739 BC: Death of Uzziah
730 BC: Death of Shoshenq V