Daniel 70 Weeks, Birth and Death of Jesus (2 BC – 32 AD)

Headline: Historical, astronomical, and Biblical evidence shows that Jesus was born on Tishri 1, 2 BC and died on Nisan 14, 32 AD.

Image: Jesus Triumphant Entry Jerusalem

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J1eKZvx0WUs

Date Range: 2 BC – 32 AD

People: Annas, Artaxerxes I, Augustus Caesar, Caiaphas, Daniel, Elizabeth, Herod the Great, Jesus, John the Baptist, Joseph, Lazarus, Mary, Nehemiah, Philip, Pontius Pilate, Quirinius, Tiberius Caesar, Zechariah

Biblical accounts show that John the Baptist was the son of Zechariah, who was of the division of Abijah. This meant that Zechariah served at the Temple on Week 8 or about 56 to 62 days after the Jewish New Year (Nisan 1). This means that John the Baptist was born in the spring. Jesus was born about six months later in the fall. King Herod the Great died on January 10, 1 BC. Jesus was less than 2 years old when Herod died. There was a unique arrangement of the stars and planets between 3 BC and the end of 2 BC, which caught the attention of the Magi. Based upon several points of discussion, John the Baptist was born on or near Passover 2 BC, and Jesus was born on or near the Feast of Trumpets, 2 BC.

John the Baptist began his ministry during the 15th year of Roman Emperor Tiberius. Jesus started His ministry around the age of 30. This means that the miracle associated with the wedding in Cana occurred on Nisan 10, 30 AD. Early historians placed the crucifixion of Jesus Christ in the 4th year of the 202nd Greek Olympiad and during the 18th year of Tiberius. Nehemiah 2:1 places the Artaxerxes Decree in the month of Nisan. John 12:1 places the Triumphal Entry and crucifixion in the month of Nisan. These, along with predictions related to the 70 Weeks of Daniel, place the Triumphal Entry into Jerusalem on Nisan 10, 32 AD, His crucifixion on Nisan 14, 32 AD, and His resurrection on Nisan 17, 32 AD.

Bible Verses: 1 Chronicles 24:7-19, Nehemiah 2:1, Daniel 9:25, Mark 15:33-39, Luke 1:5, 1:26-27, 2:1-4, 3:1-2, 3:23, 19:28-40, John 2:1-13, 6:4, 12:1, Revelation 12:1-6

Confirming the Prophetic Date of 445 BC
Daniel’s 70 Weeks
Lunar Eclipse of Josephus
Miracles at the Crucifixion of Christ
New Light on the Book of Daniel from the Dead Sea Scrolls
Prophetic Year Is 360 Days
Star of Bethlehem
When Herod the Great Died

Topic Questions:
1. When was the Artaxerxes I decree, 445 BC or 444 BC?
2. What date does the 69 weeks or 173,880 days of Daniel fall on? What does this day represent?
3. What are the dates of the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus?
4. What is John the Baptist’s birthdate?
5. What is Jesus’ birthdate? At what age did Jesus start His ministry?
6. When did King Herod the Great die?
7: What is the significance of the wedding at Cana?

God’s perfect timing. There are many opinions as to when, or even if, Jesus lived. The Bible gives very specific information as to when some events occurred, such as the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar in Luke 3, 69 weeks of Daniel 9, and 9th hour in Mark 15. Combine this with astronomical, historical, and archaeological information collected and analyzed over the years, and we have a good idea as to when Jesus was born and when He was crucified.

Timeline and Chronology:
37 AD, March 16: Death of Tiberius Caesar
32 AD, Sivan 6: Day of Pentecost / Feast of Weeks
32 AD, Nisan 17: Resurrection of Jesus
32 AD: Nisan 14: Crucifixion of Jesus
32 AD, Nisan 10: Triumphal Entry of Jesus into Jerusalem
30 AD, Nisan 10: Jesus turned water into wine / Wedding at Cana.
29 AD: John the Baptist Began Ministry
14 AD, August 19: Death of Caesar Augustus
1 BC, December 29: Partial Lunar Eclipse
1 BC, January 10: Total Lunar Eclipse / Death of Herod the Great
2 BC, Tishri 1: Birth of Jesus
2 BC, Nisan 14: Birth of John the Baptist
4 BC, March 13: Partial Lunar Eclipse
5 BC, September 15: Total Lunar Eclipse
5 BC, March 23: Total Lunar Eclipse

Xerxes, 300, Esther, Artaxerxes, Ezra, Nehemiah (480 BC – 445 BC)

Headline: Xerxes I, Battle of Thermopylae, Esther, Artaxerxes Decree, Ezra, Nehemiah, Delian League (480 BC – 445 BC).

Image: Xerxes I

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qV7wIvdomvQ

Date Range: 480 BC – 445 BC

People: Artaxerxes, Cimon, Esther / Hadassah, Ezra, Inaros II, Leonidas, Nehemiah, Pericles, Xerxes I, Zerubbabel

Xerxes I ascended to the throne in 486 BC after the death of his father Darius I. The famous Battle of Thermopylae occurred in 480 BC between King Xerxes I of the Achaemenid Empire and King Leonidas and the 300 Spartans. Most of the events described in the Book of Esther occurred after this Battle (479 BC – 473 BC). In 465 BC, Xerxes I was murdered, and Artaxerxes ascended to the throne. The Wars of the Delian League (477 BC – 449 BC) are a series of military campaigns between Greek (Pericles, Cimon) and Persian forces. The Battle of Papremis (460 BC) had the allied forces of Greece and Egypt (Inaros II) defeat the Persians. An important decree by Artaxerxes to allow the Israelites to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem occurred on Nisan 1 (March 14), 445 BC. On Nisan 17, 445 BC, the walls were inspected as described in Nehemiah 2.

Bible Verses: Ezra 4, Ezra 6:14, 7:1-8, 7:21, Nehemiah 2, Esther 1:1-5, Esther 9

Achaemenid Empire
Artaxerxes I
Battle of Salamis
Battle of Thermopylae
Bisitun Inscription
Bull Head from Persepolis
Chronology of Esther
First Fruits and Nisan 17
Harem Inscription
Inaros II
Thermopylae and the Book of Esther
Wars of the Delian League
Xerxes: An Archaeological Biography
Xerxes I
Xerxes (King Ahasuerus) Video

The events described in the Books of Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther occurred during the reigns of Xerxes I and Artaxerxes. This was a time of significant conflict between the Greeks and the Persians as seen in the Battle of Thermopylae and the Wars of the Delian League. There is a significant amount of historical material from this time period.

Timeline and Chronology
445 BC, Nisan 17: Inspection of Jerusalem’s walls (Nehemiah 2).
445 BC, Nisan 1 / March 14: Artaxerxes I authorization to rebuild Jerusalem’s city walls.
460 BC: Battle of Papremis.
465 BC: Artaxerxes I became king of Achaemenid Empire.
473 BC, Adar 14: First Feast of Purim celebrated (Esther 9).
480 BC: Battle of Thermopylae.
486 BC: Xerxes I became king of Achaemenid Empire.
489 BC: Leonidas I became king of Sparta.

A Minute Past Midnight

Every now and then I find myself trying to enforce my plans instead of God’s will. If I were a nonbeliever that would seem to be the evident choice, however, that isn’t the case for myself. As a believer, I should seek His will counting it a joy to do His work, but there are times I turn a blind eye or give God the cold shoulder, I quickly find myself searching for His help to fulfill the desires of my flesh.

One huge example I know many can relate to is the search for a girlfriend/boyfriend, often sooner than we are ready. I know I want a family of my own someday to extend my lineage, but at this current time I I’m not ready to commit into a relationship. I am not yet financially stable, but that’s a topic for another day. Still somehow I have just enough for my bills and sometimes even a few dollars left to my name, something I’m sure many of us are all too familiar with. With that said, in the times when I don’t know how I’m going gather enough to pay for such and such, right when I tell myself I’m out of time, God shows up. God shows up seconds after the brink in some fashion, often by getting a hidden bonus or an unexpected check coming in the mail.


Cyrus II, End of Captivity (539 BC)

Headline: Cyrus II, End of Hebrew Captivity, and the Fall of Babylon

Image: Cyrus II

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NTAgTCXja4Q

Date Range: 539-530 BC

People: Belshazzar, Cambyses II, Cyrus II (Kurash), Nabonidus

In 539 BC, Cyrus II defeated Nabonidus in the Battle of Opis. Shortly after, he captures the city of Babylon. The Cyrus Decree, recorded on the Cyrus Cylinder, describes how he governed the new empire. There is a significant amount of crossover here between Biblical accounts and historical data. Cambyses II, son of Cyrus the Great, rose to power in 530 BC, and the monument to Cyrus II is located at Pasargadae.

Bible Verses: 2 Chronicles 36:22-23, Ezra 1, Isaiah 44:28, Isaiah 45:1-3, Daniel 1, 5, 6:28, 10:1

Battle of Opis
Cambyses II
Cyrus Cylinder
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great: Digging for Truth Episode 148
Nabonidus Chronicle
When Was Daniel Written?
Who Wrote Isaiah?

539 BC was a significant year in the history of the world. Cyrus the Great defeated and captured Babylon. By his edict recorded in the Cyrus Cylinder in his first year, he developed and implemented a different way to govern. As a result, the Israelites were freed to return to their land. This was foretold in Isaiah 45.

Timeline and Chronology:
530 BC: Cambyses II succeeds Cyrus
539 BC, October 12: Cyrus captures Babylon. Cyrus proclamation
539 BC, September: Battle of Opis
550 BC: Cyrus defeats the Median Empire
553 BC: Nabonidus starts self-imposed exile from Babylon. Belshazzar rules.
556 BC, May 25: Beginning of reign of Nabonidus

Neco, Nebuchadnezzar II, Siege of Jerusalem (605 BC – 587 BC)

Headline: Jehoiachin (Jeconiah), Jehoiakim, Nebuchadnezzar II, Neco = Necho II, Psamtik II, Zedekiah, Siege of Jerusalem, and the End of the Southern Kingdom of Judah (605 BC – 587 BC).

Image: Nebuchadnezzar II King Babylon

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lbNX1Lyis2I

Date Range: 605 BC – 587 BC

People: Jehoiachin (Jeconiah), Jehoiakim, Nebuchadnezzar II, Neco = Necho II, Psamtik II, Zedekiah

Nebuchadnezzar II became king of the Babylonian Empire in 605 BC after the death of his father (Nabopolassar) and after he defeated Necho II and the Egyptian army at the Battle of Carchemish. In 597 BC, he captured the king of Judah, Jeconiah, and in 587 BC, Nebuchadnezzar II destroyed Jerusalem and gained control of the Southern Kingdom of Judah.

Bible Verses: 2 Kings 23:28-35, 2 Kings 24, 25:1-21, 2 Chronicles 35:20-27, 36:1-21, Daniel 4:1-5, Jeremiah 46:2

Battle of Carchemish
Battle of Carchemish Video
Jehoiachin (Jeconiah)
Nebuchadnezzar II
Nebuchadnezzar II Video
Necho II
Neo-Babylonian Empire
Psamtik II
Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC)

In the time period between 605 BC and 587 BC, there were a number of significant interactions between Assyria, Babylonian Empire, Egypt, and Judah. The end result was the destruction of Jerusalem and the capture of Judah. These events can be easily placed into a timeline, and they are consistent with Biblical text.

Timeline and Chronology:
587 BC, Av 9 (Tisha B’Av): Siege and capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar II.
589 BC: End of reign of Psamtik II.
595 BC: End of reign of Necho II. Start of reign of Psamtik II.
597 BC, March: Capture of Jeconiah. Zedekiah appointed king by Nebuchadnezzar II.
598 BC, December: Start of reign of Jeconiah.
605 BC: Battle of Carchemish. Start of reign of Nebuchadnezzar II.
609 BC, Tishri: Pharaoh Necho II made Eliakim / Jehoiakim king of Judah.
609 BC, Tammuz: Shallum / Jehoahaz III Succeeded King Josiah.
610 BC: Start of reign of Necho II (Dynasty 26).

Shalmaneser III, Jehu (859 BC – 841 BC)

Headline: Shalmaneser III, Black Obelisk, Jehu, Osorkon II, and the Battle of Qarqar (859 BC – 841 BC).

Image: Black Obelisk Shalmaneser III

Video: King Jehu and The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

Date Range: 859 BC – 841 BC

People: Ahab, Hadadezer, Jehu, Osorkon II, Shalmaneser III

There are a number of kingdoms and empires that interact during this 18 year time period (859 BC – 841 BC), including: Ammon, Aram-Damascus, Assyria, Edom, Egypt, Israel, Judah, Moab, Phoenicia, and Qedar. Shalmaneser III rose to power in 859 BC, the Battle of QarQar (which involved numerous kings) occurred in 853 BC, and Jehu rose to power in 841 BC.

Bible Verses: 1 Kings 16:29-31, 1 Kings 20, 1 Kings 22:29-40, 2 Kings 3, 2 Kings 9, 2 Chronicles 21:5

Ammon, Edom, Mesha Stele, Moab, Nabatea
Assyrian Empire Map
Battle of Qarqar
Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III
King Jehu: An Archaeological Biography
Kurkh Monoliths
Osorkon II
Shalmaneser III
Tel Dan Stele
Tyre and Sidon / Phoenicia

The numerous artifacts found throughout the entire region, along with many interactions between many nations, provide significant evidence to piece together a regional sequence of events. If a handful of these artifacts / events can be reliably dated, it fixes the entire sequence of events into a specific time period. What the Bible says about this time period is consistent with what the evidence states about this time period.

Timeline and Chronology
824 BC: Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III.
840 BC: Mesha Stele.
841 BC: Year 1 of King Jehu (2 Kings 9-12) / Year 18 of Shalmaneser III.
c. 842 BC: Tel Dan Stele.
852 BC: Kurkh Monoliths.
853 BC: Battle of Qarqar.
859 BC: Year 1 of Shalmaneser III.

Pul, Fall of Israel (727 BC – 722 BC)

Headline: Pul, Menahem, Pekahiah, Pekah, Hoshea, and the Fall of the Northern Kingdom of Israel (722 BC).

Image: Tiglath-Pileser III King Assyria 745-727

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rO-ZuFCk-PI

Date Range: 745 BC – 722 BC

People: Ahaz, Azariah (Uzziah), Hosea, Hoshea, Jotham, Menahem, Osorkon IV (So), Pekah, Pekahiah, Pul = Tiglath-Pileser III, Sargon II, Shalmaneser V.

Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III rose to power in 745 BC while Jotham was co-regent with Uzziah in Judah and three years before Menahem became king of Israel. Tiglath-Pileser III, also known as Pul in the Bible, conquered much of Mesopotamia within a few short years. During Menahem’s reign, the Assyrians were invited to pass through the Northern Kingdom of Israel to invade Aram-Damascus ruled by King Rezin. To avoid open warfare, Menahem was forced to pay tribute of a thousand talents of silver to Tiglath-Pileser III and Assyria.

In 732 BC, Pekah allied with Rezin against Assyria. King Ahaz did not ally with Israel and Aram-Damascus. As a result, Ahaz paid tribute to Tigleth-Pileser III, Aram-Damascus was destroyed, and King Rezin was executed. Pul died in 727 BC. Five years later, Sargon II destroyed the Northern Kingdom of Israel in 722 BC and deported its population.

Bible Verses: 2 Kings 15:17-31, 2 Kings 16-17, 1 Chronicles 5:1-10, 1 Chronicles 5:26, 2 Chronicles 28:16-21, Hosea 1:1

Ahaz / Jehoahaz II of Judah
Northern Kingdom of Israel
Osorkon IV
Sargon II
Shalmaneser V
Tiglath-Pileser III
Tiglath-Pileser III Video
Uzziah / Azariah

Tiglath-Pileser III (Pul) represented a clear and present danger to Israel and Judah. Both Menahem of Israel and Ahaz of Judah paid tribute to Assyria to avoid being attacked. This is just like paying a bully not to pick a fight with you. The bully is temporarily appeased, not defeated. Eventually, the King of Assyria attacked and destroyed Aram-Damascus in 732 BC and the Northern Kingdom of Israel in 722 BC. The prophet Hosea spoke about this impending doom comparing Israel to a harlot. Instead of embracing God, Israel turned its back to God. When Sargon II defeated Israel, he deported numerous Israelites eastward out of the land and imported many from the east. This permanently changed the culture of the Northern Kingdom and it ceased to exist as a nation that revered Jehovah.

Timeline and Chronology
722 BC: Sargon II became king of Assyria / Northern Kingdom fell (2 Kings 17).
727 BC, December 30: Shalmaneser V became king of Assyria.
730 BC: Osorkon IV became pharaoh of Egypt.
732 BC: Jehoahaz II became king of Judah.
745 BC, April 15: Tiglath-Pileser III became king of Assyria.

Shishak, Jeroboam, Rehoboam (931 BC – 925 BC)

Headline: Shishak, Jeroboam, Rehoboam, and the Beginning of the Divided Kingdoms of Israel and Judah (931 BC – 925 BC).

Image: Shishak Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I Pharaoh Egypt 22

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DVAZGR4u9Jo

Date Range: 931 BC – 925 BC

People: Jeroboam I, Rehoboam, Shishak = Shoshenq I, Solomon

At the end of King Solomon’s life, and shortly after, there were interactions between the king of Israel, the king’s children, and the pharaoh of Egypt (Shishak = Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I). This is the time when the United Kingdom of Israel split into the Northern Kingdom of Israel under Jeroboam I and the Southern Kingdom of Judah under Rehoboam. Some information regarding these people and events are recorded in the Bible.

Bible Verses: 1 Kings 11:9-43, 1 Kings 12, 1 Kings 14:21-31, 2 Chronicles 12

Bubastite Portal
Pharaoh Shishak Video
Shoshenq I

Shishak of the Bible is Shoshenq I, the Berber / Meshwesh founder of the 22nd Dynasty of Egypt. King Solomon, at the end of his reign, treated the Israelites harshly. Rehoboam wanted to continue this harsh treatment instead of listening to the wants and needs of the people of Israel. Rehoboam was never able to gain any significant loyalty or support from the people. For this and because he turned away from God, the United Kingdom of Israel ended.

Timeline and Chronology
926 BC: Siege of Jerusalem by Shoshenq I / Year 5 of Rehoboam.
931 BC: Year 1 of Rehoboam / Jeroboam I (1 Kings 11-14).
943 BC: Year 1 of Shoshenq I.

Truth Study Guide (Unit 1 Lessons 1-8)

This free Truth Study Guide provides a good foundation as to how to define and identify truth. It is a journey of discovery that is probably quite different than you may be used to. Truth predates humankind. Therefore, it cannot be modified, manipulated, created, or destroyed by us. Truth offers a clear standard of comparison. It is absolute, universal, objective, and exclusive.

Unit 1: Foundation of Truth
Lessons 1-8
These lessons should be completed in order. They provide a good foundation for knowing the basics and how to start placing various concepts and ideas into a larger context. Take your time and do not rush.

Lesson 1: Worldviews
Bible Verses: Matthew 16:13-20, Mark 8:27-30, John 10:24-30
8 Worldviews Part 1, Part 2.
Biblical Worldview by Focus On The Family
What Is Mindset?
What Is Worldview Video
Who Do You Say That I Am?
Topic Questions:
1. What is a worldview?
2. How does a worldview affect how I live my life?
3. What is the relationship between worldview and mindset?
4. Who did Jesus say Jesus is?
5. Who do you say Jesus is?
“A worldview is the framework from which we view reality and make sense of life and the world.” It provides an approach to understanding broad and important concepts, such as: God, birth, death, purpose, our relationship with God, and our relationship with each other. There are 8 major worldviews.
We want to encourage you to read through the Bible verses and articles provided to understand the primary ways in which people view their relationship with God and with each other. We want you to understand the critical importance of why Jesus asked, “Who do you say that I am?”

Lesson 2: The Bible
Bible Verses: Deuteronomy 31:9, Matthew 5:17-20, 22:23-33, Luke 24:36-49, John 1:1-2,14
Biblical Canon
History of the English Bible Video
Importance of Dead Sea Scrolls
Latin Vulgate
Masoretic v Septuagint
Samaritan Pentateuch
Textual Criticism of the Bible
Versions of the Bible
William Tyndale Bible
Topic Questions:
1. What is canonicity?
2. What did Jesus say about Scripture?
3. How did our modern English Bibles develop?
4. What Bible version is best?
The Holy Bible was written, translated, and canonized in stages. The Old Testament is separated into and canonized in the following order: Law, Prophets, and Writings / Psalms. The New Testament was written during the 1st Century AD and canonized later. The Dead Sea Scrolls, Masoretic, Samaritan Pentateuch, Septuagint, and Vulgate texts are the oldest sources of material for modern Bibles. Translators use different methods to translate Aramaic, Greek, and Hebrew into languages we can understand.
Do you believe what the Bible says? The Bible is not true simply because it says it is true. That would be circular reasoning. The approach of this study guide on truth is to give you some tools that help you better analyze and understand the contents and purpose of the Bible. We want to ask the tough questions, but we must also be willing to be open to the possibility that the Bible is scientifically and historically accurate. Is the Bible God-breathed and God-inspired, and can we trust it?

It is important to understand how our modern Bibles came to be. It is also important to use the correct version of the Bible for the correct purpose. For this study guide, a “word for word” translation is recommended. This includes: Amplified, English Standard, Interlinear, and New American Standard Versions.

Lesson 3: Series of Moments – Passover
Bible Verses: Refer to article
A Series of Moments: The Passover
Topic Questions:
1. What is Passover?
2. What is the significance of Passover?
This narrative takes you on a journey through the Bible from Abraham through King David to Jesus with a specific focus on Passover. Passover, pass over, or passed over, are mentioned over 100 times in the Bible and represent something significant.
What is Passover? Passover is one of the most important themes repeated often in the Bible. It is a great foundation to understand themes, people, places, and events in the Bible.

Lesson 4: Spring Festival
Bible Verses: Exodus 12-14, Leviticus 23:1-14, John 12:12-19
Barley Harvest and Passover
Crossing the Red Sea Video
Jewish Holidays
Lunar v Solar Calendar
Months of the Jewish Year
Topic Questions:
1. What is the significance of Exodus 12:1-3?
2. What is the significance of Exodus 12:5-7?
3. What is the significance of Exodus 12:7-8,14-15?
4. What day of the Hebrew month did the Israelites cross the Red Sea?
Exodus 12-14 play out the spring feasts: 10th Plague / Passover (Nisan 14) and Crossing the Red Sea / Firstfruits (Nisan 17). Leviticus 23 states the importance of remembering them. The barley harvest is associated with Passover both Biblically and culturally.
The spring feasts point to the work of Jesus Christ as the Messiah: Triumphal Procession (Nisan 10), Crucifixion / Passover (Nisan 14), Unleavened Bread (Nisan 15-21), and Resurrection / Firstfruits (Nisan 17). Biblical references to these events point to specific Lunar Calendar dates.

Lesson 5: Summer and Fall Festivals
Bible Verses: Leviticus 23:15-44, Leviticus 25:8-22, Deuteronomy 16:16, John 7, Acts 2:1-4
Fall Festivals
God’s Three Harvest Festivals
Jubilees and Grand Jubilees
Prophetic Fulfillment of the Biblical Feasts Video
Topic Questions:
1. Describe the Feast of Trumpets.
2. Describe the Day of Atonement.
3. Describe the Feast of Tabernacles.
4. Describe the Feast of Weeks / Pentecost.
5. What is the significance of Jubilee?
6. What is the significance of the wheat and grape harvests?
Shavuot / Feast of Weeks / Pentecost (Sivan 6)
– Associated with Jubilee (50 Year Cycle)
Feast of Trumpets (Tishri 1)
Yom Kippur / Day of Atonement (Tishri 10)
Sukkot / Feast of Tabernacles (Tishri 15-21)
Just as the Spring festivals occur on specific Lunar Calendar dates and have symbolic meaning, so to do the Summer and Fall festivals. These feasts and festivals codified in Leviticus 23 mark the core of Hebrew / Jewish holy gatherings and observances. The Feast of Weeks represents the work of the Holy Spirit, and the Feast of Tabernacles represents the work of God the Father.

Lesson 6: Shalmaneser III, Jehu (859 BC – 841 BC)
Refer to https://themercytable.net/2021/12/25/shalmaneser-iii-jehu-859-bc-841-bc/

Lesson 7: Reliability of Dating the Past
Bible Verses: Psalm 9:10, 111:7, Proverbs 3:5-6, Isaiah 26:3-4, 2 Timothy 3:16
Are Dating Methods Reliable
Ash Heap of History
Bur-Sagale Solar Eclipse (763 BC, June 15) in Year 9 of King Ashur-dan III
Dating the Earth Video (Part 1)
Dating the Earth Video (Part 2)
Hittite Lunisolar Calendar Video
Is Radiometric Dating Accurate?
Lunar and Solar Eclipses on Biblical Events
Topic Questions:
1. Which dating methods are most reliable?
2. Can we trust the time-related information provided in the Bible?
These articles describe different dating methods and how they are used. Some are more reliable than others. Astronomical events, such as total lunar eclipses, are like a plumb line and can be quite reliable if interpreted correctly because they are based on observed celestial activity and mathematical calculations. If a writer from the past links a historical event (such as the inauguration of a king) to a significant astronomical event (such as a total solar eclipse), we can often determine the date of the event with great accuracy.
Dating methods require calibration or a way to make sure the results are accurate. A plumb line determines true vertical and is often used as an accurate point of comparison. When working with more modern material, there are numerous points to compare: artifacts, astronomical records, coinage, DNA testing, historical records, international relations, monuments, written documents, etc. However, dating methods become much less reliable as the number of independent cross-reference points decrease. What are you using as a plumb line?

Lesson 8: Oldest Writings / Imago Dei
Bible Verses: Genesis 1:26–27, 4:22, 5:1, 9:6, Colossians 3:10, James 3:1-12
Anatolian Art and Architecture
Diary of Merer (Year 27 of Khufu – 4th Dynasty Egypt)
Ebla Tablets (2240 BC)
Ebla Video
Imago Dei
Moscow Mathematical Papyrus (13th Dynasty Egypt)
Narmer Palette (Early Dynastic Period)
Temple Library of Nippur
Instructions of Shuruppak (Early Dynastic Period)
Kesh Temple Hymns (Early Dynastic Period)
“Imago Dei” means “Image of God.” We are made in the likeness of God. We have the ability to remember, to learn, to reason, and to be creative. We think beyond the needs of today. We are aware of our mortality. These are all attributes that God designed within us. These are some attributes that allow us and give us the desire to have a relationship with God. Evidence points toward the idea that man has been this way since the beginning.
There is a common misconception that people of the distant past were illiterate, uncultured, and generally ignorant. This lesson demonstrates that engineering, mathematics, metallurgy, writing, and other “cultural advancements” were present and common throughout the last 5000 years. Curiosity, the ability to learn, the desire to leave a part of ourselves for the next generation, etc., are all gifts from God as that is how we are designed.

Unit 1 Conclusion:
Jewish holidays and astronomical observations help us identify when events occurred. Artifacts and written documents help us identify what happened, and to whom. There is one question Science cannot answer: Why? What is the purpose of all this? Why do we exist? The search to answer “Why” is at the heart of having a relationship with our Creator.

Timeline and Chronology:
763 BC, June 15: Bur-Sagale Solar Eclipse / Year 9 of Ashur-dan III.
824 BC: Black Obelisk of (death of) Shalmaneser III.
840 BC: Mesha_Stele.
841 BC: Tel Dan Stele.
841 BC: Year 1 of King Jehu (2 Kings 9-12) / Year 18 of Shalmaneser III.
852 BC: Kurkh Monoliths.
853 BC: Battle of Qarqar.
2250 (+-10) BC: Ebla Tablets / Naram-Sim of Akkad.
2500 (+-100) BC: Diary of Merer (Year 27 of Khufu – 4th Dynasty Egypt).
Great Pyramid of Giza.

What Is the Plumb Line of Truth

Headline: What Is the Plumb Line of Truth? A plumbline or plumb line is a piece of string, wire, etc., with a pointed weight at the end (see picture). The tight rope or string is pulled tight due to the force of gravity. A plumb line points to the direction of true vertical. Similarly, a level is a device used in construction to identify true horizontal (see picture). The force of gravity again is used.

Image: Plumb Line of Truth

Level Construction Device

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qcGjN9jOt9M

Topic Questions

1. What is the definition of truth?
2. What are the characteristics of truth?
3. What is the purpose of truth in our lives?

Standard of Comparison

What is truth without a standard of comparison? Truth is not fact or opinion. It cannot be modified, manipulated, created, or destroyed. It is not my own personal belief or value system. Truth is steadfast, original, and indestructible. Truth existed prior to mankind. Truth is like a plumb line or a level construction device. It identifies direction. It clearly separates what is from what isn’t.

Characteristics of Truth

Truth is Absolute: Truth is not dependent upon anybody or anything else.

Truth is Universal: Truth affects everybody and everything. You cannot escape it or run away from it.

Truth is Objective: Truth is not based on thoughts, perceptions, subjective opinions, or personal experiences. It can be defined into a yes or no statement.

Truth is Exclusive: Truth creates a clear division or separation between what belongs and what does not belong. It is like a plumbline that identifies vertical. Anything that is parallel to it is also vertical. Everything else is not.

Guide to Find Truth

Description: Here is a free guide to help you find and identify truth. It takes you on a journey of discovery using a variety of tools. Often, you feel like there is so much and wonder where and how to start. This study guide will walk you through the fundamentals and provide a good foundation as to how all this works. Each lesson contains a significant amount of closely related material. Each lesson is designed to take at least a week to complete. It is important that you understand the purpose of each lesson before you move on to the next. Go as fast or as slow as you feel comfortable. If you have any questions, feel free to contact Mike through TheMercyTable.net website.

Bible Verses: Amos 7:7-8, John 1:17, 14:6, Ephesians 4:15-16

Plumb Line of Truth Study Guide Unit 1 – Lessons 1-8