Terah, Abraham, Isaac, Ebla, Akkadian Empire Timeline (2296 BC – 1886 BC)

Headline: Terah, Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Rebekah, Ishmael, Akkadian Empire Timeline (2296 BC – 1886 BC)

Image: Ebla Kingdom

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x1i5B04NTF4

Date Range: 2296 BC – 1886 BC

People: Abraham, Hagar, Intef II, Isaac, Ishmael, Rebekah, Sarah, Terah

There is much that can be said about a little town you probably never heard of: Ebla. It is located in the northwest corner of the modern country of Syria about 34 miles southwest of Aleppo. Its name is possibly related to the “white rock” limestone in which the city is constructed upon. At its height, Ebla supported a population of about 260,000 people and had developed trade and diplomatic relationships with the Egyptians, Canaanites, Cypriots, Amorites, Hurrians, Akkadians, Sumerians, and Elamites (see Map). This entire region from the Nile River through the Armenian Highlands to the Persian Gulf is known as the Fertile Crescent. By circa 2500 BC, agriculture, art, trade, and writing were already developed. The Egyptians under the 4th Dynasty built the Great Pyramids of the Giza Plateau, the Sumerians constructed multiple cities including Eridu, and the Eblaite Kingdom was headquartered in what is now known as Tell Mardikh.

Archaeological excavations at Ebla have unearthed over 17,000 pieces of clay tablets that date from about 2400 BC to 2240 BC. It was strategically located near the center of all trade throughout the region, and the city kept records… lot’s and lot’s of administrative records. Ebla was destroyed by the Akkadian ruler Naram-Sin c. 2240 BC. These tablets were written in cuneiform Sumerian and a Semitic language called Eblaite, which is related to Akkadian, Ammonite, Amorite, Edomite, Hebrew, and Moabite. This region of southern Turkey / northern Syria is where Abraham and some of his ancestors lived. Terah was 70 years old when Haran was born, and Abraham was 75 years old when Terah died at the age of 205. Abraham was 86 years old when Ishmael was born, and he was 100 years old when Isaac was born. Also, Abraham is ten years older than Sarah. Abraham was born in 2166 BC in Ur Kasdim. Many modern scholars associate Ur of the Chaldeans (Ur Kasdim) with the southern Mesopotamian city of Ur located about 13 miles southwest of Nasiriyah, Iraq, and 788 miles southeast of Aleppo, Syria. The location of Ur near Nasiriyah is not consistent with the Bible. Genesis 24:10 states that Abraham’s servant went to the city of Nahor in the land of Aram-naharaim to the land of his forefathers to find a wife for Isaac. There he found Rebekah who was the great-granddaughter of Terah through Nahor (Abraham’s brother). Aram-naharaim literally means “Aram of the Two Rivers” and is associated with the land in northern Aramean Syria. Biblical evidence suggests that Abraham was born near the border of Turkey and Syria.

Harran, Turkey, where Terah took his family after leaving Ur Kasdim is about 142 miles northeast of Aleppo. Local legend, and some evidence, states that Abraham was born in the nearby city of Şanlıurfa, which is about 28 miles north of Harran. There is not conclusive evidence to conclude that Abraham was born in or near Şanlıurfa, but it is consistent with Biblical text. It is within a short distance travel of Harran. It is in a region where Semitic languages were regularly spoken and written. The culture of the region at this time is consistent with that of the Biblical Patriarchs. It is part of the “land between the two rivers.” Abraham and family settled in Kiriath-arba (aka Hebron). It is about 19 miles south of Jerusalem and is about 3000 feet above sea level.

Bible Verses: Genesis 11:27-32,12:1-5,12:10-15,16:16,17:15-27,18:1-8,19:23-29,21:5,23:1,25:7, Acts 7:1-5

Topic Question:
1. Who was the oldest of Terah’s children?
2. What year was Abraham born?
3. What year was Terah born?
4. What year were Haran and Sarah born?
5. What years were Ishmael and Isaac born?
6. In what general region did Terah’s family live?
7. What was the genetic relationship between Isaac and Rebekah?
8. What family did Sarah belong to?
9. Briefly describe the cultural and political environment in which Abraham was born into.

4.2 Kiloyear Event.
Akkadian Empire.
Buried in a Genealogy – BEMA Discipleship Podcast Episode 8.
Chronology of Abraham.
Ebla Tablets and the Bible.
First Intermediate Period Egypt Video.
Intef II.
Mesopotamian Political Map c. 2500 BC.
Mysterious Ancient City of Ebla.
Stela of King Intef II Wahankh.
Top 10 Discoveries Related to Abraham.

Do the details matter? The short answer is “Yes.” The Bible is not a book of history or science, but it contains information that is historically and scientifically correct. Genesis was written by Moses just before c. 1406 BC. This was about 760 years before Abraham was born. This would be like you writing about King John of England, Stephen Langton, the Magna Carta, and Pope Innocent III. What are the chances that you wrote something incorrect or made an incorrect conclusion about this time period? As we peel back the layers of our understanding of the book of Genesis, we begin to see how intricately woven and historically accurate it is. From our vantage point of selfish ambition and limited understanding, we want to force conclusions onto the text of the Bible and then state that it is incorrect. Instead of trying to force an opinion on the Bible, perhaps it is time to let the Bible speak to you. Look at the details. These details help place you at these events. Try to understand the culture of the time, and not just implant our culture onto their culture. What was so different about Abraham, and why did Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob marry descendants of Terah? What is God trying to say to you through Biblical text?

Timeline and Chronology:
1991 BC: Abraham Died.
2004 BC: Ur III Dynasty Ended.
2029 BC: Sarah Died.
2066 BC: Isaac Born.
2080 BC: Ishmael Born.
2091 BC: Terah Died.
2112 BC: Ur III Dynasty Began
2154 BC: Akkadian Empire Ended.
2156 BC: Sarah Born.
2166 BC: Abraham Born.
2169 BC: Death of Dudu / Reign of Shu-turul.
2181 BC: 6th Dynasty of Egypt Ended.
2189 BC: Reign of Dudu.
2193 BC: Death of Shar-Kali-Sharri.
2218 BC: Death of Naram-Sin / Reign of Shar-Kali-Sharri.
2226 BC: Haran Born.
2240 BC: Ebla / Tell Mardikh Destroyed.
2255 BC: Death of Manishtushu / Reign of Naram-Sin.
2270 BC: Death of Rimush / Reign of Manishtushu.
2279 BC: Death of Sargon / Reign of Rimush.
2296 BC: Terah Born.
2334 BC: Akkadian Empire Began Under Sargon.

Jacob, Joseph, 12th Dynasty Egypt Timeline (2006 BC – 1805 BC)

Headline: Birth and Death of Jacob / Israel, Joseph, and the 12th Dynasty of Egypt Chronology (2006 BC – 1805 BC)

Image: Joseph Tomb Egypt

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qxw1h-iJ_qE

Date Range: 2006 BC – 1805 BC

People: Amenenhat III, Asher, Benjamin, Bilhah, Dan, Esau, Gad, Issachar, Jacob / Israel, Joseph, Judah, Laban, Leah, Levi, Naphtali, Rachel, Reuben, Senusret II, Senusret III, Simeon, Zebulun, Zilpah

The history of the 12th Dynasty of Egypt is intertwined with the lives of Jacob and Joseph. Jacob and Esau were born in 2006 BC when Isaac was 60 years old. Shortly after, in 1991 BC, the 12th Dynasty of Egypt began with the rise to power of Amenemhat I. The 12th Dynasty was composed of eight pharaohs that ruled from 1991 BC to 1802 BC. This dynasty left behind a significant amount of artifacts, including papyri, pyramids, stelae, temples, and more. There was also a significant amount of interactions between Egypt and its neighbors, which has allowed for a fairly accurate chronology. Although the Book of Genesis does not provide specific information about which pharaoh was involved in specific situations, there is enough evidence, both internally and externally, to support the existence of the nation of Israel in Egypt during the 12th Dynasty. Joseph was born in Haran in 1915 BC when Jacob was 91 years old and when Amenemhat II was pharaoh. At the age of 17, Joseph was given a multi-colored coat by his father and eventually sold into slavery by his brothers. Joseph was purchased by Potiphar. Joseph eventually gained the trust of Potiphar and served as the master of his household. At the age of 30, in 1885 BC, Joseph was promoted to the second in charge of all of Egypt by Senusret II. 1878 BC marks the end of the seven years of plenty and the death of Senusret II. Two years into the seven years of famine, Jacob and family settle into the land of Egypt in the region of Goshen. Goshen is in the exact same area as Avaris, Ezbet Rushdi, Peru-nefer, Pi-Ramesses, Rowaty, and Tell el Dab’a. In 1860 BC, Amenemhat III became co-regent of Egypt, and a year later, Jacob died at the age of 147. Joseph died at the age of 110 in 1805 BC, and the 12th Dynasty of Egypt ended in 1802 BC.

Bible Verses: Genesis 25:19-28, 28:10-22, 29:1-35, 30:1-43, 31:41, 35:16-29, 37:1-2, 37:12, 37:28, 37:36, 41:25-46, 46:27, 47:27-28, 50:22-26

Amenenhat III
Avaris, Goshen, Peru-nefer, Pi-Ramesses, Rowaty, Tell el Dab’a
Israelite Sojourn in Egypt Video (Part One)
Israelite Sojourn in Egypt Video (Part Two)
Sebek-khu Stele
Senusret II
Senusret III
Temple of Ezbet Rushdi
Turin King List

Topic Questions:
1. Who was Jacob’s twin brother?
2. Who is Laban?
3. How old was Jacob when Joseph was born?
4. How many years of plenty and years of famine did Joseph declare from the dream?
5. How many male children did Jacob have?
6. How old was Joseph when he was sold into slavery?
7. How old was Joseph when he became the second most powerful person in Egypt?
8. How old was Jacob when he entered Egypt, and how old was he when he died?
9. How old was Joseph when he died?
10. Who were the two son’s of Joseph?
11. Which pharaohs did Joseph serve under?
12. What is the significance of Tell el-Dab’a?

There has been much study on the chronology and timeline of both Egypt and Israel. For any conclusion made, there are many who disagree. Because of this, consensus is not the objective. Based on the best evidence and conclusions available, what do they tell us? One possible scenario is that Joseph had a profound effect on the history of both Egypt and Israel. Joseph was born at a time of astronomy, writing, mathematics, construction, and political stability. He must have had some special gifts / talents, for he entered Egypt as a slave at the age of 17 and became the second most powerful person in the empire by the age of 30. The Egyptian name given to Joseph was something similar to the Hebrew version given as Zaphenath-Paaneah. The meaning of his name is related to his ability to interpret dreams. Joseph demonstrated ability and trust when he ran Potipher’s household. Upon his promotion, he ran the nation of Egypt the same way he ran Potipher’s household. Based on the timeline provided below, Joseph was promoted by Senusret II at the beginning of the seven years of plenty. At the end of these seven years, Senusret II died and Senusret III took over as pharaoh. The seven years of famine occurred during the first seven years of his reign, and Jacob entered the land of Egypt during the second year of the famine. Because of Joseph’s leadership and design of how food was distributed, the pharaoh that Joseph served under during the famine became very powerful and wealthy. In order for a person to obtain food from Egypt, something must be traded, such as money, land, or themselves as slaves. Historical and archaeological evidence demonstrates this consolidation of power and wealth under Senusret III. A question arises related to the two decade long co-regency of Senusret III and Amenemhat III. What was the cause of this? The extended length of this co-regency is abnormal. The timeline may give us a clue. Perhaps Jacob fell ill and Joseph stepped down to take care of his father and family. This would have left a significant gap in the leadership of Egypt. It is possible that Amenemhat III stepped into this role. Then when Jacob died and wanted to be buried in Canaan, Amenemhat III led an expedition into Canaan. Although this narrative is not conclusive, the evidence does suggest this narrative.

Timeline and Chronology:
1802 BC: End of 12th Dynasty of Egypt
1805 BC: Joseph Died at Age 110.
1814 BC: Death of Nimaatre Amenemhat III
1839 BC: Death of Khakaure Senusret III.
1859 BC: Jacob / Israel Died at Age 147.
1860 BC: Year 1 of Nimaatre Amenemhat III (6th Pharaoh 12th Dynasty) as Co-regent.
1876 BC: Jacob Enters Egypt at Age 130.
1878 BC: Death of Khakheperre Senusret II / Year 1 of Khakaure Senusret III (5th Pharaoh 12th Dynasty).
1885 BC: Joseph Promoted.
1895 BC: Death of Nubkaure Amenemhat II (3rd Pharaoh 12th Dynasty)
1897 BC: Year 1 of Khakheperre Senusret II (4th Pharaoh 12th Dynasty) as Co-Regent.
1898 BC: Joseph Obtains Multi-Colored Coat From Jacob and Sold into Slavery.
1915 BC: Joseph Born
1991 BC: Start of 12th Dynasty of Egypt
2006 BC: Jacob and Esau Born When Isaac Was 60.

Judge Deborah, Late Bronze Age Collapse, Merneptah, Ramesses III (1213 BC – 1177 BC)

Headline: Judge Deborah, Barak, Late Bronze Age Collapse, Merneptah Stele, Medinet Habu Mortuary Temple of Ramesses III, Trojan War Solar Eclipse, Sea Peoples, Battles of the Kishon River / Djahy / Delta.

Image: Judge Deborah

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sfa4WePudyo

Date Range: 1213 BC – 1177 BC

People: Barak, Deborah, Jabin, Merneptah, Ramesses III, Sisera

Merneptah was the 4th pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty and son of Ramesses II. He came to power upon his father’s death in 1213 BC. Unlike many of the other pharaohs, there was little to no co-regency between Ramesses II and Merneptah. The Merneptah Stele describes two military campaigns during his 5th year in Libya and Canaan (c. 1208 BC). Although this stele describes great victories, evidence suggests that the text suggests political propaganda as opposed to historical accuracy. The Merneptah Stele does specifically mention Ashkelon, Canaan, Gezer, Hatti, Israel, Libya, and Memphis. TheBiblicalTimeline.org provides a detailed explanation and conclusions related to a Biblical timeline. This site reaches the conclusion that the Battle of the Kishon River (Deborah v. Sisera) occurred somewhere between 1200 BC and 1225 BC. For the purposes of this lesson and website, we use 1208 BC as the date of this event.

Sisera of Harosheth-hagoyim was the military commander for Jabin of Hazor. It is often difficult to link Biblical characters to historical people because the Bible often uses metaphors as names. For example, the literal meaning of Sisera of Harosheth-hagoyim is Battle Array of the Nation’s Woodlands. Is this Biblical name related to who he is in reality or what he represents (or both)? Similarly, Jabin may either be a Canaanite title based on a position of authority (such as pharaoh) or a dynastic family name (such as Ramesses). Because of this, it is difficult (but not impossible) to link specific people to these events.

Outside of the Merneptah Stele from 1208 BC, there are a handful of items that help date events during this time period. The Medinet Habu is the mortuary temple of Ramesses III (1186 BC – 1155 BC). It contains many details related to his reign. In Year 8 of his reign (c 1178 BC), he fought against a confederacy of Sea Peoples (i.e. Denyen, Peleset, Shardana, Tjekker, Weshesh) in the Battle of Djahy and the Battle of the Delta. Papyrus Harris I was written during the reign of Ramesses IV (who was the son of Ramesses III). It contains similar information to that of Medinet Habu. It is important to note that the Philistines mentioned in the books of Judges and 1 Samuel are direct descendants of these Peleset. The Philistines established themselves in prime lowland cities around the Levant starting in 1177 BC. There was an annular solar eclipse on January 21, 1192 BC. There was also a total solar eclipse on April 16, 1178 BC, and is associated with the Trojan War.

There were a number of significant events throughout the region between 1210 BC and 1150 BC. This time period is known as the Late Bronze Age Collapse. This is a time when a number of civilizations were either significantly weakened or disappeared altogether, including: Hittite Empire, Kassites, Minoans, Mitanni, Mycenaeans, and Troy. Scholars are still working out the details, but something happened, and 1177 BC is often used as the pivotal time period for this collapse.

Bible Verses: Joshua 11, Judges 4, Judges 5:31

Annular Solar Eclipse: January 21, 1192 BC
Archaeologist Ben-Tor Talks About Hazor Video
Battle of the Delta
Battle of Djahy
Book of Judges Timeline Chart
Book of Judges Timeline
Late Bronze Age Collapse
Medinet Habu Mortuary Temple
Merneptah Stele
Merneptah Stele Translation
Papyrus Harris I
Total Solar Eclipse: April 16, 1178 BC

Topic Questions:
1. What is the Merneptah Stele?
2. What was the importance of the city of Hazor?
3. How did the Philistines end up in Canaan?
4. What is the Medinet Habu?
5. Briefly describe the Bronze Age collapse.

When first researching deeper into the life and times of prophetess and judge Deborah, the detail that stuck out is the 900 chariots of iron mentioned in Judges 4:3. If this is a literal count, this represents a substantial military force. As a comparison, the Battle of Kadesh, which occurred shortly before in 1274 BC between the forces of Ramesses II (Egypt) and Muwatalli II (Hittite Empire), had a combined total military force of about 6000 chariots and 50,000 men. The battle described in Judges 4 matches well with the battle described in the Merneptah Stele. This artifact describes an event in Year 5 of Pharaoh Merneptah (c. 1208 BC) where Egypt was involved in military battles in Libya and Canaan. This monument specifically mentions Israel. There is good evidence to suggest that Deborah and the nation of Israel was involved in a military campaign against Canaan and Egypt c. 1208 BC, and it was these 900 chariots of iron that were involved in this military campaign. This is where the research started. The search continued for other details related to this significant event in history which transcended an individual nation. This lesson consolidates critical information related to the life and times of Judge Deborah.

Timeline and Chronology:
1177 BC: Late Bronze Age collapse.
1178 BC, April 16: Solar eclipse associated with the Trojan War.
1178 BC: Battle of Djahy / Battle of the Delta.
1192 BC, January 21: Annular solar eclipse.
1208 BC: Merneptah Stele / Year 5 of Merneptah
1208 BC (+/- 5): Deborah v. Sisera at Kishon River.

Joshua, Battles of Jericho and Ai, First Jubilee, Mitanni (1406 BC)

Headline: Joshua (Yehoshua), Battle of Jericho, Battle of Highland Border Fortress at Ai, First Jubilee, Grand Jubilee Cycles, Mitanni Kingdom (1406 BC)

Image: Battle Ai Joshua 8

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n97nVMxxues

Date Range: 1406 BC

People: Aaron, Achan, Caleb, Joshua, Moses, Rahab, Salmon

The events of Joshua 5-8 occurred 40 years after the Exodus from Egypt. The 10th Plague of Egypt occurred on Nisan 14, 1446 BC. The observation of Passover at Gilgal described in Joshua 5:10 occurred on Nisan 14, 1406 BC. It is not specifically stated in the Bible, but the Israelites most likely observed the Feast of Unleavened Bread (Nisan 15-21). This means that the seven days of the Battle of Jericho occurred between Nisan 22 and Nisan 28, 1406 BC. There is substantial debate over the Battle of Jericho. Some, such as Kathleen Kenyon, have stated that the evidence does not support Biblical text. Archaeologist Bryant Wood, who is with Associates for Biblical Research (biblearchaeology.org), has stated that Kathleen Kenyon ignored significant evidence. His conclusion is that the evidence supports a conclusion that Jericho was destroyed in the spring circa 1400 BC. The Battle of Ai occurred shortly after the Battle of Jericho. While some have placed Ai at et-Tell, Bryant Wood has placed it at Khirbet el-Maqatir. This location is consistent with details provided in Biblical text, and it was also destroyed circa 1400 BC. Ai was a Canaanite highland fortress. It was located about 14 miles west of Jericho and 10 miles north of Jerusalem. Since Ai was a fortress north of Jerusalem, who was to the north of Canaan that the fortress was designed to protect against? The short answer is the Kingdom of Mitanni, and to a lesser degree the Hittite Empire. There were complex political relationships during this time period between the four major powers in the region: Egyptians, Hittites, Kassites, and Mitanni. Ai was a fortress to protect against northern invasion of the Canaanite region.

There is much disagreement as to how old Joshua was during specific events described in the Bible. The only specific number provided is that he lived to be 110 years old. Joshua’s age was within a few years of Caleb’s age. They were both selected as spies, and they were the only two of their generation to go to the Promised Land. 40 is a significant number in Hebrew culture, and it represents the age in which a person receives the deepest measure of understanding. Caleb was forty years old when selected as a spy, Moses was forty years old when he killed the Egyptian beating a Hebrew, and it would be reasonable to conclude that Joshua was at least forty when he was selected as a spy. Jewish tradition states that he was three years older than Caleb. The Bible is not specific on this matter, so any suggested age for Joshua is an estimate. For the purpose of this lesson and the timeline provided on this website, the conclusion is that Joshua was three years older than Caleb.

Spring 1406 represents the beginning of the Jubilee Cycles for the Israelites in the Promised Land. This is a complicated subject and there is much to say about it. The short description is that the Year of Jubilee as described in the Bible is a 50-year cycle that begins in 1406 BC. One last thing is that Rahab, the protector of Joshua and Caleb within the city of Jericho, married Salmon who was the father of Boaz and the great-great grandfather of King David.

Bible Verses: Leviticus 25:1-22, Numbers 1:1, Numbers 26:65, Numbers 33:38-39, Deuteronomy 34:7, Joshua 2, Joshua 5-8, Joshua 14:6-10, Judges 2:8, Matthew 1:5

15th Century BC Scarab from Joshua’s Ai (Khirbet el-Maqatir) Video
40 and Hebrew Mysticism
Biblical Sites: Three Discoveries at Jericho
Book of Joshua Video
Evidence for Inerrancy from a Second Unexpected Source: The Jubilee and Sabbatical Cycles
Finding the Lost City of Ai (Part One) Video
Finding the Lost City of Ai (Part Two) Video
Khirbet el Maqatir Map
Map of Mesopotamia c. 1400 BC
Mitanni Kingdom

Topic Questions:
1. What is the significance of Joshua 5:6 and Joshua 5:10?
2. Describe the Battle of Jericho.
3. What was the significance of Ai? Who were the Mitanni?
4. Describe the Battle of Ai.
5. Briefly describe some artifacts found at Jericho and Ai.
6. Do these artifacts support Biblical text?
7. Describe Jubilee cycles and their relationship to Joshua 5:10.
8. Who is Rahab and who did she have a child with?

Does archaeology prove the Bible? This is the wrong question to ask. The better question to ask is if external evidence is consistent with Biblical text. There is good evidence that is consistent with Biblical text. Much happened in 1406 BC. The Israelites entered Canaan, Jericho was destroyed, Ai was destroyed, and the Jubilee cycles began. Dr Bryant Wood is an archaeologist who specializes in the study of Jericho and Ai. He has clearly stated with evidence to back him up that there is a significant amount of archaeological evidence that is consistent with Biblical text.

Timeline and Chronology:
1378 BC: Death of Joshua
1406 BC, Summer: Destruction of Ai
1406 BC, Nisan 28: Destruction of Jericho
1406 BC, Nisan 14: Observance of Passover by Joshua at Gilgal
1488 BC: Birth of Joshua

Moses, 10 Plagues, Exodus from Egypt, Kohen Gene (1446 BC)

Headline: Moses, 10 Plagues, Exodus from Egypt, Amenhotep II, Aaron and the Kohen Gene (1529 BC – 1446 BC)

Image: Moses Aaron Exodus from Egypt

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JY-UW6kAXq8

Date Range: 1529 BC – 1446 BC

People: Aaron, Amenhotep II, Moses

The date and even the existence of the 10th Plague of Egypt is one of the most debated subjects in Biblical history. Many state that the Exodus occurred during the reign of Ramesses II (3rd Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty), and then they add that there is no evidence of the Exodus at this time. The simple answer to that is that they are looking in the wrong place at the wrong time. There is ample evidence, a handful of which is discussed here, to strongly suggest that the Exodus occurred during Year 7 of the reign of Amenhotep II (7th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty). Again, many date his reign from 1427 BC – 1401 BC, but there is significant evidence to conclude that there was a short (two-year) co-regency with his father, Thutmose III, and that he rose to power in the 1450s BC. His unsuccessful expedition into Syria in April of Year 7, his capture of 101,128 slaves in Year 9 (to replace those who left in the Exodus), numerous skin lesions found on his mummified body, and the early death of his first-born son all corroborate Biblical text. 1 Kings 6:1 and Exodus 12 point to the date of Nisan 14, 1446 BC, for the date of the 10th Plague of Egypt.

Another interesting point is that of the Cohen / Kohen Gene. Kohen means “priest” in Hebrew. The Bible describes the role of priests in great detail, and that they are descendants of Aaron, the brother of Moses. DNA testing has concluded that almost 99% of males tested with the Cohen surname contained a specific genetic marker. This genetic marker is significantly less common in non-Cohen males of similar ancestry. Genetics demonstrates what the Bible states: The Kohen priestly line began with Aaron – brother of Moses – and continued for generations. Some of his DNA has been found in modern generations of males.

Bible Verses: Genesis 47:11, Exodus 1:11, 2:1-5, 2:11-15, 7:7, Exodus 11-12, Acts 7:22-24

Amenhotep II
Amenhotep II and the Historicity of the Exodus Pharaoh
Bible Project Video: Exodus 1-18
Discovery of the Cohen Gene
Hebrew Meaning of the Name Moses Video
Map of Ancient Egypt
Map of Mesopotamia c. 1400 BC
Royal Precinct at Rameses
Was Moses’ Name Egyptian?

Topic Questions:
1. How old was Moses when he and Aaron confronted Pharaoh?
2. What does the name Moses mean?
3. What is the date of the Exodus?
4. Who was the Pharaoh of the Exodus?
5. Who found Moses in the water?
6. What is the significance of the name “Cohen?”

This article demonstrates the importance of good evidence, good critical thinking skills, and having the proper worldview. If you allow yourself to have an open and honest look at the evidence presented, it would be dishonest to state that there is no evidence of the Exodus from Egypt. Although there is no artifact stating that the Exodus occurred during the first full Moon in Year 7 of the reign of Amenhotep II, there is ample evidence to demonstrate that the information provided in the Bible is consistent with a mass exodus that occurred during Year 7 of the reign of Amenhotep II.

Timeline and Chronology:
1446 BC, Nisan 17: Crossing the Red Sea
1446 BC, Nisan 14: 10th Plague of Egypt / Year 7 of Amenhotep II
1486 BC: Moses Fled to Midian
1526 BC: Birth of Moses
1529 BC: Birth of Aaron