Jeroboam II, Uzziah, Earthquake, Amos, Bur Sagale Solar Eclipse, Jonah, Hosea (796 BC – 753 BC)

Headline: Amaziah, Jeroboam II, Azariah / Uzziah, Earthquake, Amos, Bur Sagale Solar Eclipse, Jonah, Hosea (796 BC – 753 BC)

Image: Amos Earthquake Epicenter 760 BC Lebanon


Date Range: 796 BC – 753 BC

People: Amaziah, Amos, Ashur-dan III, Azariah / Uzziah, Hosea, Jeroboam II, Jonah, Sarduri II, Shoshenq V, Takelot III

Amos 1:1 states that Amos began the work as God’s prophet two years before the earthquake during the reigns of Uzziah king of Judah, and Jeroboam II king of Israel. This verse is the key to unlocking much. Based on this verse, the earthquake occurred during the reigns of Uzziah and Jeroboam II. 2 Kings 14:23, 2 Kings 15:1, and 2 Chronicles 26:3 provide a bit more information. Jeroboam II began to reign in the 15th year of Amaziah, king of Judah and father of Uzziah. He reigned for 41 years. Azariah / Uzziah, son of Amaziah, began to reign at the age of 16 and reigned for 52 years. The following verses help develop a timeline between Jehu (841 BC – 814 BC) and Jeroboam II (793 BC – 753 BC) / Uzziah (792 BC – 739 BC):

2 Kings 12:1 – Year 7 of Jehu = Year 1 of Jehoash.
2 Kings 13:1 – Year 23 of Joash (Jehoash) = Year 1 of Jehoahaz.
2 Kings 13:10 – Year 37 of Joash = Year 1 of Jehoash.
2 Kings 14:1 – Year 2 of Joash son of Joahaz, king of Israel, Amaziah, son of Joash, king of Judah, began to reign.

This is where things get a bit tricky. Let’s assume for a moment that Jeroboam II began his reign in 793 BC (which most scholars agree). On face value, 2 Kings 15:1 would lead us to conclude that Uzziah began his 52 year reign in the 27th year of the reign of Jeroboam II. This would mean that Uzziah reigned from approximately 767 BC to 715 BC. This statement is in direct conflict with 2 Kings 18:9-10, which states that Hezekiah was king of Judah and Hoshea was king of Israel when the Assyrians captured the Northern Kingdom of Israel in 722 BC.

2 Chronicles 25:23 provides the solution to this apparent conflict. 2 Chronicles 25:1 states that Amaziah was king for 29 years. However, 2 Chronicles 25:23 states that Amaziah was captured in battle about 4 years into his reign by King Joash of Israel. It was at this time that Uzziah was made king of Judah at the age of 16. There was a co-regency of about 25 years for Amaziah and Azariah / Uzziah. Amaziah began to reign in 796 BC, and Uzziah became co-regent at the age of 16 in 792 BC. Jeroboam II’s 41 year reign was 793 BC to 753 BC. Amaziah died in 767 BC at which time Uzziah became the sole king of Judah until his death in about 739 BC.

This information now gives us a time frame for the earthquake. Amos 1:! states that is was during the times of kings Uzziah and Jeroboam II. Uzziah became sole regent in 767 BC and Jeroboam II died in 753 BC. Most scholars agree that there was an earthquake between 7.8 and 8.2 on the Richter Scale centered near modern day Bar Elias, Lebanon, which occurred about 760 BC. As a comparison, the San Francisco earthquake on April 18, 1906, was 7.8 on the Richter Scale. The Bar Elias earthquake is also the same time period of the Bur Sagale solar eclipse of June 15, 763 BC.

Ashur-dan III was the king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from 773 BC to 755 BC. Aakheperre Shoshenq V (767 BC – 730 BC) of the 22nd Dynasty was pharaoh of Lower Egypt. Usermaatre Setepenamun Takelot III (774 BC – 759 BC) of the 23rd Dynasty was pharaoh of Upper Egypt. Very little is known about the Assyrian and Egyptian Empires during this time. Both empires were in decline. With both empires in decline, it allowed the Urartian Kingdom in Anatolia and Israel / Judah in the Levant to flourish. The Urartian Kingdom under Sarduri II (764 BC – 735 BC), Israel under Jeroboam II, and Judah under Uzziah were expanding.

2 Kings 14:23-25 states that Jonah lived during the time of Jeroboam II. Hosea 1:1 states that Hosea the prophet lived during the time of kings Jeroboam II, Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah. This means that Amos, Hosea, and Jonah were all prophets during the reigns of Jeroboam II and Uzziah.

Bible Verses: 2 Kings 12:1, 13:1, 13:10, 14:1, 14:23-25, 15:1, 18:9-10, 19:35-37, 2 Chronicles 25:1, 25:23-25, 26:1-3, Hosea 1:1, Amos 1:1

1906 San Francisco Earthquake Video
22nd Dynasty of Egypt
23rd Dynasty of Egypt
Amos Earthquake Evidence
Amos Earthquake Impact
Ashur-dan III
Divided Kingdom (pages 14-18)
King Uzziah Expansionist Policy
King Uzziah Digging for Truth Video
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Sarduri II

Topic Questions:
1. What year was the earthquake, and how strong was it?
2. Where did the earthquake occur?
3. What is Bur Sagale, and when did it happen?
4. What major events occurred during the times of Amos and Jonah?

Kings Jeroboam II and Uzziah both had long reigns. Assyria was weak and ruled by King Ashur-dan III. Egypt was weak and ruled by Shoshenq V and Takelot III. The kingdoms of Israel and Judah expanded. Things shifted in the 760s BC. King Amaziah died in 767 BC, there was a significant solar eclipse in 763 BC, and there was a massive earthquake centered in Lebanon circa 760 BC. This is the times and environment in which God’s prophets Amos and Jonah served.

Timeline and Chronology:
796 BC: Year 1 of King Amaziah of Judah
793 BC: Year 1 of King Jeroboam II of Israel
792 BC: Capture of King Amaziah / Year 1 of Reign of King Azariah of Judah
774 BC: Year 1 of Takelot III
773 BC: Year 1 of Assyrian King Ashur-dan III
767 BC: Death of King Amaziah of Judah / Year 1 of Shoshenq V
763 BC, June 15: Bur Sagale Solar Eclipse
760 (+/- 7) BC: Earthquake of Amos 1:1
759 BC: Death of Takelot III
755 BC: Death of Assyrian King Ashur-dan III
753 BC: Death of King Jeroboam II of Israel
739 BC: Death of Uzziah
730 BC: Death of Shoshenq V

Adam, Methuselah, Noah, Great Flood, Peleg, Tower of Babel, Great Migrations (Year 1 – 2428 BC)

Headline: Genesis 1-11, Adam, Eve, Enoch, Methuselah, Noah, Shem, Great Flood, Time of Peleg, Tower of Babel, Great Migrations, Early Bronze Age (Year 1 – 2428 BC)

Image: Genesis 1-11


Date Range: Year 1 – 2428 BC

People: Adam, Arphaxad, Eber, Enoch, Enosh, Ham, Japheth, Jared, Kainan, Kenan, Lamech, Mahalalel, Methuselah, Nimrod, Noah, Peleg, Seth, Shelah, Shem

It is difficult to determine dates prior to the birth of Terah (2296 BC) with any degree of certainty due to a lack of evidence. First, Genesis 5 and Genesis 11 briefly describe the history and lineage of 18 generations between Adam and Abraham. This is not much detail. Second, science and history are not much more help. Typically, independent data points are collected and cross-referenced. Astronomical details, artifacts, coinage, literature, volcanic eruptions, etc., could be compared to each other to obtain a chronology. The problem is that prior to the time of Terah, there are very few separate and distinct data points to compare. Numerous dates or date ranges are provided through radiometric dating, but as some of the articles provided discuss, without adequate separate and distinct points of reference to compare, there is a significant amount of uncertainty as to the reliability of any conclusions related tp chronological dates. Therefore, any dates provided by science are suspect and should be treated more as guidelines and suggestions rather than facts. Similarly, except for Noah, the Bible is quite vague about what happened to the Patriarchs between the life of Adam and Abraham. A direct approach in developing an accurate chronology during this time period is very difficult. So, a different method may be more effective.

Based on the Biblical narrative between Genesis 1 and 11, we can make a few general assumptions that could be studied. First, according to Genesis 1, the universe had a beginning. Second, according to Genesis 2, man first appeared near the Persian Gulf. Third, according to Genesis 6, there was a Great Flood that wiped out most of the world’s population. Fourth, according to Genesis 8 and 10, the modern concept of civilization (architecture, art, farming, literature, metal working, etc.) began near the mountains of Ararat and spread outward. Fifth, according to Genesis 11, a large tower was constructed in the land of Shinar. Sixth, according to Genesis 11, there were mass migrations before the birth of Terah. There will always be supporters and non-supporters of any hypothesis. The real question is, does the evidence support any or all of these six assumptions?

Assumption 1: Time had a beginning
Stephen Hawking was a well-respected astrophysicist. The following are some of his quotes. “All the evidence seems to indicate, that the universe has not existed for ever, but that it had a beginning… In fact, the theory that the universe has existed forever, is in serious difficulty with the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Law, states that disorder always increases with time… Galaxies are moving steadily apart from each other. This means that they were closer together in the past. One can plot the separation of two galaxies, as a function of time. If there were no acceleration due to gravity, the graph would be a straight line. It would go down to zero separation, about twenty billion years ago. One would expect gravity, to cause the galaxies to accelerate towards each other. This will mean that the graph of the separation of two galaxies, will bend downwards, below the straight line. So the time of zero separation, would have been less than twenty billion years ago.”

Assumption 2: Man first appeared near the Persian Gulf
“A research paper published in Current Anthropology provides scientific evidence for such a lost ancient civilization, evidence that confirms much of Genesis 1–11’s historical account of humanity’s early days… Jeffrey Rose reports on the discovery, conducted over the past six years, of over sixty new archeological sites along the shoreline of the Persian Gulf. All of these sites are dated as older than 75,000 years. Rose states that “these settlements boast well-built permanent stone houses, long-distance trade networks, elaborately decorated pottery, domesticated animals, and even evidence for one of the oldest boats in the world… The Persian Gulf receded to such a degree as to bring above the surface a landmass as large as, or larger than, Great Britain. Rose explains that this landmass was well watered by four large rivers flowing at the time: the Tigris, Euphrates, Karun, and Wadi Batin. Additionally, the region was watered by fresh water springs supplied by subterranean aquifers flowing beneath the Arabian subcontinent. Such an abundant and well-distributed supply of fresh water combined with the region’s warm weather would have supported a lush agricultural enterprise… As skeptics point out, nowhere on the planet do the four rivers come together. Their charge holds true—but only for today’s geography. All four rivers flow into different parts of the Persian Gulf and all four rivers meet together in what Rose identifies as the Gulf Oasis. As Rose points out, the Gulf Oasis was also watered by springs upwelling from subterranean aquifers… The Gulf Oasis vindicates the unique claims Genesis makes about the Garden of Eden and its surroundings.”

Assumption 3: A Great Flood wiped out most of the world’s population
“It appears the movement and creation of male haplotypes capture the real current of history, which went through a bottleneck in the aftermath of a cataclysmic event 75,000 years ago… After a mega-tsunami event that drowned most populations around the world about 68,000 years ago, there were two refuges where humankind survived, in the Alpine region of central Europe and the Balkans and East Africa… Archeology, archeogenetics, linguistics and physical anthropology are beginning to converge for the first time. It is groups of men who colonized the world. They brought along with them women of almost random haplotypes.”

Assumption 4: Modern civilization began near the mountains of Ararat
“Aratta is now recognised as having been the world’s most ancient (known) civilisation. It developed in the steppes north of the Black Sea (in modern Ukraine) long before the Sumerian civilisation originated, and from there it radiated its culture into India, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Western China and across Europe.”

Assumption 5: A large tower was constructed in the land of Shinar
“Göbekli Tepe is a Neolithic archaeological site near the city of Şanlıurfa in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. Dated to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, between c. 9500 and 8000 BCE, the site comprises a number of large circular structures supported by massive stone pillars – the world’s oldest known megaliths. Many of these pillars are richly decorated with abstract anthropomorphic details, clothing, and reliefs of wild animals, providing archaeologists rare insights into prehistoric religion and the particular iconography of the period. The 15 m (50 ft)-high, 8 ha (20-acre) tell also includes many smaller rectangular buildings, quarries, and stone-cut cisterns from the Neolithic, as well as some traces of activity from later periods. The site was first used at the dawn of the Neolithic period, which in Southwest Asia marks the appearance of the oldest permanent human settlements anywhere in the world.”

Assumption 6: There were mass migrations before the birth of Terah
“The Kurgan hypothesis or Steppe theory is the most widely accepted proposal to identify the Proto-Indo-European homeland from which the Indo-European languages spread out throughout Europe and parts of Asia. It postulates that the people of a Kurgan culture in the Pontic steppe north of the Black Sea were the most likely speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE)… Gimbutas defined the Kurgan culture as composed of four successive periods, with the earliest (Kurgan I) including the Samara and Seroglazovo cultures of the Dnieper–Volga region in the Copper Age (early 4th millennium BC). The people of these cultures were nomadic pastoralists, who, according to the model, by the early 3rd millennium BC had expanded throughout the Pontic–Caspian steppe and into Eastern Europe.”

As stated earlier, there is no way at this time to definitively prove or disprove specific dates of events in the distant past. These are based on a series of assumptions and calculations. As demonstrated above, there is significant evidence to support each of these six assumptions individually. Whether or not they line up with Biblical chronology is a separate discussion. This means that the Biblical narrative from Genesis 1-11 has merit worth further study.

Bible Verses: Genesis 1:1, Genesis 5, 6:1-14, 7:11, 8:13-16, 11

Ancient Aratta: The World’s first Civilization
Beginning Of Time
Genesis 5 and 11: MT, SP, or LXX
Göbekli Tepe
Kurgan Hypothesis
Lost Civilization beneath the Persian Gulf Confirms Genesis History of Humanity
Male Haplogroup Distribution vs Mitochondrial Migrations

Topic Questions:
1. Does the Masoretic Text or the Septuagint align better with archaeological evidence? Why the difference?
2. Based on Genesis 5, how old was Methuselah when Noah started having children?
3. Discuss the six assumptions described in the Description above.

Genesis 1-11 are critical chapters in the Bible. They set the stage for every event that came after. Did Adam and Eve exist as described in the Bible? Did the Great Flood happen that wiped out much of what was before? Did the Tower of Babel and the Great Migrations as described in the Bible occur?

There is some evidence of what it was like in the distant past, both Biblically and scientifically. The real question is how it is interpreted. There are a large number of scientists who want to ignore the Bible altogether, and date events of the distant past based primarily on radiometric dating and limited human understanding. Science in its truest form is the collection, testing, and interpretation of evidence. The problem is that money, ego, and selfish ambition have corrupted it. Consensus of professionals and dogma are more important than evidence. Untested theories are treated as facts, while inconvenient evidence is ignored.

The primary purpose of this lesson is to introduce Genesis 1-11. It is to show some of the controversy related to it, but more importantly, it is to demonstrate that there is evidence that validates the early chapters of Genesis – depending on how the evidence is interpreted. Something very important to keep in mind is that biological and chemical processes prior to the Flood were most likely quite different than they are today. We typically want to leverage present experience to understand the distant past, but this approach has one fatal assumption: that the biological and chemical processes of the distant past were similar to what they are today. The problem is that this assumption cannot be tested in good measure, and that there is not enough independent corroborating evidence to support it or refute it.

It always comes back to the same question: do you believe that there is an all-powerful Creator God as described in the Bible? We started this journey many lessons ago with the question: Who do you say Jesus is? The question is still valid. John 1:1-3 states, “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made.”

C.S. Lewis was a professed atheist who became one of the most prolific Christian authors of all time. He wrote: “What Satan put into the heads of our remote ancestors, was the idea that they could ‘be like gods’ – could set up on their own as if they had created themselves – be their own masters -invent some sort of happiness for themselves outside God, apart from God. And out of that hopeless attempt has come nearly all that we call human history – money, poverty, ambition, war, prostitution, classes, empires, slavery – the long terrible story of man trying to find something other than God which will make him happy.” The question I leave you with is this: “Do you believe in the Creator and Messiah God as described in the Bible?”

Timeline and Chronology:
2296 BC: Birth of Terah.
2298 BC: Death of Reu.
2375 BC: Birth of Nahor.
2397 BC: Death of Eber
2428 BC: Death of Peleg
2498 BC: Death of Shelah
2505 BC: Birth of Serug.
2637 BC: Birth of Reu.
2701 BC: Death of Kainan
2731 BC: Death of Arpachshad
2767 BC: Birth of Peleg.
– Great Migrations.
– Tower of Babel.
2796 BC: Death of Shem
2901 BC: Birth of Eber.
2948 BC: Death of Noah.
3031 BC: Birth of Shelah.
3161 BC: Birth of Kainan.
3296 BC: Birth of Arpachshad.
– Start of Bronze Age.
Noah’s Ark in the Land of Aratta.
– Flood = 3298 BC. Death of Methuselah.
– Archaeology, Genetics, Linguistics, and the Flood.
3303 BC: Death of Lamech.
3396 BC: Birth of Shem.
3864 BC: Death of Mahalalel.
3632 BC: Death of Jared.
3898 BC: Birth of Noah.
4019 BC: Death of Kenan.
4067 BC: Death of Enoch.
4080 BC: Birth of Lamech.
4214 BC: Death of Enosh.
4267 BC: Birth of Methuselah.
4412 BC: Death of Seth.
4432 BC: Birth of Enoch.
4594 BC: Birth of Jared.
4759 BC: Birth of Mahalalel.
4624 BC: Death of Adam.
4929 BC: Birth of Kenan.
5119 BC: Birth of Enosh.
5324 BC: Birth of Seth.
5554 BC: Birth of Adam.
– Garden of Eden under Persian Gulf.

Terah, Abraham, Isaac, Ebla, Akkadian Empire Timeline (2296 BC – 1886 BC)

Headline: Terah, Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Rebekah, Ishmael, Akkadian Empire Timeline (2296 BC – 1886 BC)

Image: Ebla Kingdom


Date Range: 2296 BC – 1886 BC

People: Abraham, Hagar, Intef II, Isaac, Ishmael, Rebekah, Sarah, Terah

There is much that can be said about a little town you probably never heard of: Ebla. It is located in the northwest corner of the modern country of Syria about 34 miles southwest of Aleppo. Its name is possibly related to the “white rock” limestone in which the city is constructed upon. At its height, Ebla supported a population of about 260,000 people and had developed trade and diplomatic relationships with the Egyptians, Canaanites, Cypriots, Amorites, Hurrians, Akkadians, Sumerians, and Elamites (see Map). This entire region from the Nile River through the Armenian Highlands to the Persian Gulf is known as the Fertile Crescent. By circa 2500 BC, agriculture, art, trade, and writing were already developed. The Egyptians under the 4th Dynasty built the Great Pyramids of the Giza Plateau, the Sumerians constructed multiple cities including Eridu, and the Eblaite Kingdom was headquartered in what is now known as Tell Mardikh.

Archaeological excavations at Ebla have unearthed over 17,000 pieces of clay tablets that date from about 2400 BC to 2240 BC. It was strategically located near the center of all trade throughout the region, and the city kept records… lot’s and lot’s of administrative records. Ebla was destroyed by the Akkadian ruler Naram-Sin c. 2240 BC. These tablets were written in cuneiform Sumerian and a Semitic language called Eblaite, which is related to Akkadian, Ammonite, Amorite, Edomite, Hebrew, and Moabite. This region of southern Turkey / northern Syria is where Abraham and some of his ancestors lived. Terah was 70 years old when Haran was born, and Abraham was 75 years old when Terah died at the age of 205. Abraham was 86 years old when Ishmael was born, and he was 100 years old when Isaac was born. Also, Abraham is ten years older than Sarah. Abraham was born in 2166 BC in Ur Kasdim. Many modern scholars associate Ur of the Chaldeans (Ur Kasdim) with the southern Mesopotamian city of Ur located about 13 miles southwest of Nasiriyah, Iraq, and 788 miles southeast of Aleppo, Syria. The location of Ur near Nasiriyah is not consistent with the Bible. Genesis 24:10 states that Abraham’s servant went to the city of Nahor in the land of Aram-naharaim to the land of his forefathers to find a wife for Isaac. There he found Rebekah who was the great-granddaughter of Terah through Nahor (Abraham’s brother). Aram-naharaim literally means “Aram of the Two Rivers” and is associated with the land in northern Aramean Syria. Biblical evidence suggests that Abraham was born near the border of Turkey and Syria.

Harran, Turkey, where Terah took his family after leaving Ur Kasdim is about 142 miles northeast of Aleppo. Local legend, and some evidence, states that Abraham was born in the nearby city of Şanlıurfa, which is about 28 miles north of Harran. There is not conclusive evidence to conclude that Abraham was born in or near Şanlıurfa, but it is consistent with Biblical text. It is within a short distance travel of Harran. It is in a region where Semitic languages were regularly spoken and written. The culture of the region at this time is consistent with that of the Biblical Patriarchs. It is part of the “land between the two rivers.” Abraham and family settled in Kiriath-arba (aka Hebron). It is about 19 miles south of Jerusalem and is about 3000 feet above sea level.

Bible Verses: Genesis 11:27-32,12:1-5,12:10-15,16:16,17:15-27,18:1-8,19:23-29,21:5,23:1,25:7, Acts 7:1-5

Topic Question:
1. Who was the oldest of Terah’s children?
2. What year was Abraham born?
3. What year was Terah born?
4. What year were Haran and Sarah born?
5. What years were Ishmael and Isaac born?
6. In what general region did Terah’s family live?
7. What was the genetic relationship between Isaac and Rebekah?
8. What family did Sarah belong to?
9. Briefly describe the cultural and political environment in which Abraham was born into.

4.2 Kiloyear Event.
Akkadian Empire.
Buried in a Genealogy – BEMA Discipleship Podcast Episode 8.
Chronology of Abraham.
Ebla Tablets and the Bible.
First Intermediate Period Egypt Video.
Intef II.
Mesopotamian Political Map c. 2500 BC.
Mysterious Ancient City of Ebla.
Stela of King Intef II Wahankh.
Top 10 Discoveries Related to Abraham.

Do the details matter? The short answer is “Yes.” The Bible is not a book of history or science, but it contains information that is historically and scientifically correct. Genesis was written by Moses just before c. 1406 BC. This was about 760 years before Abraham was born. This would be like you writing about King John of England, Stephen Langton, the Magna Carta, and Pope Innocent III. What are the chances that you wrote something incorrect or made an incorrect conclusion about this time period? As we peel back the layers of our understanding of the book of Genesis, we begin to see how intricately woven and historically accurate it is. From our vantage point of selfish ambition and limited understanding, we want to force conclusions onto the text of the Bible and then state that it is incorrect. Instead of trying to force an opinion on the Bible, perhaps it is time to let the Bible speak to you. Look at the details. These details help place you at these events. Try to understand the culture of the time, and not just implant our culture onto their culture. What was so different about Abraham, and why did Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob marry descendants of Terah? What is God trying to say to you through Biblical text?

Timeline and Chronology:
1991 BC: Abraham Died.
2004 BC: Ur III Dynasty Ended.
2029 BC: Sarah Died.
2066 BC: Isaac Born.
2080 BC: Ishmael Born.
2091 BC: Terah Died.
2112 BC: Ur III Dynasty Began
2154 BC: Akkadian Empire Ended.
2156 BC: Sarah Born.
2166 BC: Abraham Born.
2169 BC: Death of Dudu / Reign of Shu-turul.
2181 BC: 6th Dynasty of Egypt Ended.
2189 BC: Reign of Dudu.
2193 BC: Death of Shar-Kali-Sharri.
2218 BC: Death of Naram-Sin / Reign of Shar-Kali-Sharri.
2226 BC: Haran Born.
2240 BC: Ebla / Tell Mardikh Destroyed.
2255 BC: Death of Manishtushu / Reign of Naram-Sin.
2270 BC: Death of Rimush / Reign of Manishtushu.
2279 BC: Death of Sargon / Reign of Rimush.
2296 BC: Terah Born.
2334 BC: Akkadian Empire Began Under Sargon.

Jacob, Joseph, 12th Dynasty Egypt Timeline (2006 BC – 1805 BC)

Headline: Birth and Death of Jacob / Israel, Joseph, and the 12th Dynasty of Egypt Chronology (2006 BC – 1805 BC)

Image: Joseph Tomb Egypt


Date Range: 2006 BC – 1805 BC

People: Amenenhat III, Asher, Benjamin, Bilhah, Dan, Esau, Gad, Issachar, Jacob / Israel, Joseph, Judah, Laban, Leah, Levi, Naphtali, Rachel, Reuben, Senusret II, Senusret III, Simeon, Zebulun, Zilpah

The history of the 12th Dynasty of Egypt is intertwined with the lives of Jacob and Joseph. Jacob and Esau were born in 2006 BC when Isaac was 60 years old. Shortly after, in 1991 BC, the 12th Dynasty of Egypt began with the rise to power of Amenemhat I. The 12th Dynasty was composed of eight pharaohs that ruled from 1991 BC to 1802 BC. This dynasty left behind a significant amount of artifacts, including papyri, pyramids, stelae, temples, and more. There was also a significant amount of interactions between Egypt and its neighbors, which has allowed for a fairly accurate chronology. Although the Book of Genesis does not provide specific information about which pharaoh was involved in specific situations, there is enough evidence, both internally and externally, to support the existence of the nation of Israel in Egypt during the 12th Dynasty. Joseph was born in Haran in 1915 BC when Jacob was 91 years old and when Amenemhat II was pharaoh. At the age of 17, Joseph was given a multi-colored coat by his father and eventually sold into slavery by his brothers. Joseph was purchased by Potiphar. Joseph eventually gained the trust of Potiphar and served as the master of his household. At the age of 30, in 1885 BC, Joseph was promoted to the second in charge of all of Egypt by Senusret II. 1878 BC marks the end of the seven years of plenty and the death of Senusret II. Two years into the seven years of famine, Jacob and family settle into the land of Egypt in the region of Goshen. Goshen is in the exact same area as Avaris, Ezbet Rushdi, Peru-nefer, Pi-Ramesses, Rowaty, and Tell el Dab’a. In 1860 BC, Amenemhat III became co-regent of Egypt, and a year later, Jacob died at the age of 147. Joseph died at the age of 110 in 1805 BC, and the 12th Dynasty of Egypt ended in 1802 BC.

Bible Verses: Genesis 25:19-28, 28:10-22, 29:1-35, 30:1-43, 31:41, 35:16-29, 37:1-2, 37:12, 37:28, 37:36, 41:25-46, 46:27, 47:27-28, 50:22-26

Amenenhat III
Avaris, Goshen, Peru-nefer, Pi-Ramesses, Rowaty, Tell el Dab’a
Israelite Sojourn in Egypt Video (Part One)
Israelite Sojourn in Egypt Video (Part Two)
Sebek-khu Stele
Senusret II
Senusret III
Temple of Ezbet Rushdi
Turin King List

Topic Questions:
1. Who was Jacob’s twin brother?
2. Who is Laban?
3. How old was Jacob when Joseph was born?
4. How many years of plenty and years of famine did Joseph declare from the dream?
5. How many male children did Jacob have?
6. How old was Joseph when he was sold into slavery?
7. How old was Joseph when he became the second most powerful person in Egypt?
8. How old was Jacob when he entered Egypt, and how old was he when he died?
9. How old was Joseph when he died?
10. Who were the two son’s of Joseph?
11. Which pharaohs did Joseph serve under?
12. What is the significance of Tell el-Dab’a?

There has been much study on the chronology and timeline of both Egypt and Israel. For any conclusion made, there are many who disagree. Because of this, consensus is not the objective. Based on the best evidence and conclusions available, what do they tell us? One possible scenario is that Joseph had a profound effect on the history of both Egypt and Israel. Joseph was born at a time of astronomy, writing, mathematics, construction, and political stability. He must have had some special gifts / talents, for he entered Egypt as a slave at the age of 17 and became the second most powerful person in the empire by the age of 30. The Egyptian name given to Joseph was something similar to the Hebrew version given as Zaphenath-Paaneah. The meaning of his name is related to his ability to interpret dreams. Joseph demonstrated ability and trust when he ran Potipher’s household. Upon his promotion, he ran the nation of Egypt the same way he ran Potipher’s household. Based on the timeline provided below, Joseph was promoted by Senusret II at the beginning of the seven years of plenty. At the end of these seven years, Senusret II died and Senusret III took over as pharaoh. The seven years of famine occurred during the first seven years of his reign, and Jacob entered the land of Egypt during the second year of the famine. Because of Joseph’s leadership and design of how food was distributed, the pharaoh that Joseph served under during the famine became very powerful and wealthy. In order for a person to obtain food from Egypt, something must be traded, such as money, land, or themselves as slaves. Historical and archaeological evidence demonstrates this consolidation of power and wealth under Senusret III. A question arises related to the two decade long co-regency of Senusret III and Amenemhat III. What was the cause of this? The extended length of this co-regency is abnormal. The timeline may give us a clue. Perhaps Jacob fell ill and Joseph stepped down to take care of his father and family. This would have left a significant gap in the leadership of Egypt. It is possible that Amenemhat III stepped into this role. Then when Jacob died and wanted to be buried in Canaan, Amenemhat III led an expedition into Canaan. Although this narrative is not conclusive, the evidence does suggest this narrative.

Timeline and Chronology:
1802 BC: End of 12th Dynasty of Egypt
1805 BC: Joseph Died at Age 110.
1814 BC: Death of Nimaatre Amenemhat III
1839 BC: Death of Khakaure Senusret III.
1859 BC: Jacob / Israel Died at Age 147.
1860 BC: Year 1 of Nimaatre Amenemhat III (6th Pharaoh 12th Dynasty) as Co-regent.
1876 BC: Jacob Enters Egypt at Age 130.
1878 BC: Death of Khakheperre Senusret II / Year 1 of Khakaure Senusret III (5th Pharaoh 12th Dynasty).
1885 BC: Joseph Promoted.
1895 BC: Death of Nubkaure Amenemhat II (3rd Pharaoh 12th Dynasty)
1897 BC: Year 1 of Khakheperre Senusret II (4th Pharaoh 12th Dynasty) as Co-Regent.
1898 BC: Joseph Obtains Multi-Colored Coat From Jacob and Sold into Slavery.
1915 BC: Joseph Born
1991 BC: Start of 12th Dynasty of Egypt
2006 BC: Jacob and Esau Born When Isaac Was 60.

Judge Deborah, Late Bronze Age Collapse, Merneptah, Ramesses III (1213 BC – 1177 BC)

Headline: Judge Deborah, Barak, Late Bronze Age Collapse, Merneptah Stele, Medinet Habu Mortuary Temple of Ramesses III, Trojan War Solar Eclipse, Sea Peoples, Battles of the Kishon River / Djahy / Delta.

Image: Judge Deborah


Date Range: 1213 BC – 1177 BC

People: Barak, Deborah, Jabin, Merneptah, Ramesses III, Sisera

Merneptah was the 4th pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty and son of Ramesses II. He came to power upon his father’s death in 1213 BC. Unlike many of the other pharaohs, there was little to no co-regency between Ramesses II and Merneptah. The Merneptah Stele describes two military campaigns during his 5th year in Libya and Canaan (c. 1208 BC). Although this stele describes great victories, evidence suggests that the text suggests political propaganda as opposed to historical accuracy. The Merneptah Stele does specifically mention Ashkelon, Canaan, Gezer, Hatti, Israel, Libya, and Memphis. provides a detailed explanation and conclusions related to a Biblical timeline. This site reaches the conclusion that the Battle of the Kishon River (Deborah v. Sisera) occurred somewhere between 1200 BC and 1225 BC. For the purposes of this lesson and website, we use 1208 BC as the date of this event.

Sisera of Harosheth-hagoyim was the military commander for Jabin of Hazor. It is often difficult to link Biblical characters to historical people because the Bible often uses metaphors as names. For example, the literal meaning of Sisera of Harosheth-hagoyim is Battle Array of the Nation’s Woodlands. Is this Biblical name related to who he is in reality or what he represents (or both)? Similarly, Jabin may either be a Canaanite title based on a position of authority (such as pharaoh) or a dynastic family name (such as Ramesses). Because of this, it is difficult (but not impossible) to link specific people to these events.

Outside of the Merneptah Stele from 1208 BC, there are a handful of items that help date events during this time period. The Medinet Habu is the mortuary temple of Ramesses III (1186 BC – 1155 BC). It contains many details related to his reign. In Year 8 of his reign (c 1178 BC), he fought against a confederacy of Sea Peoples (i.e. Denyen, Peleset, Shardana, Tjekker, Weshesh) in the Battle of Djahy and the Battle of the Delta. Papyrus Harris I was written during the reign of Ramesses IV (who was the son of Ramesses III). It contains similar information to that of Medinet Habu. It is important to note that the Philistines mentioned in the books of Judges and 1 Samuel are direct descendants of these Peleset. The Philistines established themselves in prime lowland cities around the Levant starting in 1177 BC. There was an annular solar eclipse on January 21, 1192 BC. There was also a total solar eclipse on April 16, 1178 BC, and is associated with the Trojan War.

There were a number of significant events throughout the region between 1210 BC and 1150 BC. This time period is known as the Late Bronze Age Collapse. This is a time when a number of civilizations were either significantly weakened or disappeared altogether, including: Hittite Empire, Kassites, Minoans, Mitanni, Mycenaeans, and Troy. Scholars are still working out the details, but something happened, and 1177 BC is often used as the pivotal time period for this collapse.

Bible Verses: Joshua 11, Judges 4, Judges 5:31

Annular Solar Eclipse: January 21, 1192 BC
Archaeologist Ben-Tor Talks About Hazor Video
Battle of the Delta
Battle of Djahy
Book of Judges Timeline Chart
Book of Judges Timeline
Late Bronze Age Collapse
Medinet Habu Mortuary Temple
Merneptah Stele
Merneptah Stele Translation
Papyrus Harris I
Total Solar Eclipse: April 16, 1178 BC

Topic Questions:
1. What is the Merneptah Stele?
2. What was the importance of the city of Hazor?
3. How did the Philistines end up in Canaan?
4. What is the Medinet Habu?
5. Briefly describe the Bronze Age collapse.

When first researching deeper into the life and times of prophetess and judge Deborah, the detail that stuck out is the 900 chariots of iron mentioned in Judges 4:3. If this is a literal count, this represents a substantial military force. As a comparison, the Battle of Kadesh, which occurred shortly before in 1274 BC between the forces of Ramesses II (Egypt) and Muwatalli II (Hittite Empire), had a combined total military force of about 6000 chariots and 50,000 men. The battle described in Judges 4 matches well with the battle described in the Merneptah Stele. This artifact describes an event in Year 5 of Pharaoh Merneptah (c. 1208 BC) where Egypt was involved in military battles in Libya and Canaan. This monument specifically mentions Israel. There is good evidence to suggest that Deborah and the nation of Israel was involved in a military campaign against Canaan and Egypt c. 1208 BC, and it was these 900 chariots of iron that were involved in this military campaign. This is where the research started. The search continued for other details related to this significant event in history which transcended an individual nation. This lesson consolidates critical information related to the life and times of Judge Deborah.

Timeline and Chronology:
1177 BC: Late Bronze Age collapse.
1178 BC, April 16: Solar eclipse associated with the Trojan War.
1178 BC: Battle of Djahy / Battle of the Delta.
1192 BC, January 21: Annular solar eclipse.
1208 BC: Merneptah Stele / Year 5 of Merneptah
1208 BC (+/- 5): Deborah v. Sisera at Kishon River.

Joshua, Battles of Jericho and Ai, First Jubilee, Mitanni (1406 BC)

Headline: Joshua (Yehoshua), Battle of Jericho, Battle of Highland Border Fortress at Ai, First Jubilee, Grand Jubilee Cycles, Mitanni Kingdom (1406 BC)

Image: Battle Ai Joshua 8


Date Range: 1406 BC

People: Aaron, Achan, Caleb, Joshua, Moses, Rahab, Salmon

The events of Joshua 5-8 occurred 40 years after the Exodus from Egypt. The 10th Plague of Egypt occurred on Nisan 14, 1446 BC. The observation of Passover at Gilgal described in Joshua 5:10 occurred on Nisan 14, 1406 BC. It is not specifically stated in the Bible, but the Israelites most likely observed the Feast of Unleavened Bread (Nisan 15-21). This means that the seven days of the Battle of Jericho occurred between Nisan 22 and Nisan 28, 1406 BC. There is substantial debate over the Battle of Jericho. Some, such as Kathleen Kenyon, have stated that the evidence does not support Biblical text. Archaeologist Bryant Wood, who is with Associates for Biblical Research (, has stated that Kathleen Kenyon ignored significant evidence. His conclusion is that the evidence supports a conclusion that Jericho was destroyed in the spring circa 1400 BC. The Battle of Ai occurred shortly after the Battle of Jericho. While some have placed Ai at et-Tell, Bryant Wood has placed it at Khirbet el-Maqatir. This location is consistent with details provided in Biblical text, and it was also destroyed circa 1400 BC. Ai was a Canaanite highland fortress. It was located about 14 miles west of Jericho and 10 miles north of Jerusalem. Since Ai was a fortress north of Jerusalem, who was to the north of Canaan that the fortress was designed to protect against? The short answer is the Kingdom of Mitanni, and to a lesser degree the Hittite Empire. There were complex political relationships during this time period between the four major powers in the region: Egyptians, Hittites, Kassites, and Mitanni. Ai was a fortress to protect against northern invasion of the Canaanite region.

There is much disagreement as to how old Joshua was during specific events described in the Bible. The only specific number provided is that he lived to be 110 years old. Joshua’s age was within a few years of Caleb’s age. They were both selected as spies, and they were the only two of their generation to go to the Promised Land. 40 is a significant number in Hebrew culture, and it represents the age in which a person receives the deepest measure of understanding. Caleb was forty years old when selected as a spy, Moses was forty years old when he killed the Egyptian beating a Hebrew, and it would be reasonable to conclude that Joshua was at least forty when he was selected as a spy. Jewish tradition states that he was three years older than Caleb. The Bible is not specific on this matter, so any suggested age for Joshua is an estimate. For the purpose of this lesson and the timeline provided on this website, the conclusion is that Joshua was three years older than Caleb.

Spring 1406 represents the beginning of the Jubilee Cycles for the Israelites in the Promised Land. This is a complicated subject and there is much to say about it. The short description is that the Year of Jubilee as described in the Bible is a 50-year cycle that begins in 1406 BC. One last thing is that Rahab, the protector of Joshua and Caleb within the city of Jericho, married Salmon who was the father of Boaz and the great-great grandfather of King David.

Bible Verses: Leviticus 25:1-22, Numbers 1:1, Numbers 26:65, Numbers 33:38-39, Deuteronomy 34:7, Joshua 2, Joshua 5-8, Joshua 14:6-10, Judges 2:8, Matthew 1:5

15th Century BC Scarab from Joshua’s Ai (Khirbet el-Maqatir) Video
40 and Hebrew Mysticism
Biblical Sites: Three Discoveries at Jericho
Book of Joshua Video
Evidence for Inerrancy from a Second Unexpected Source: The Jubilee and Sabbatical Cycles
Finding the Lost City of Ai (Part One) Video
Finding the Lost City of Ai (Part Two) Video
Khirbet el Maqatir Map
Map of Mesopotamia c. 1400 BC
Mitanni Kingdom

Topic Questions:
1. What is the significance of Joshua 5:6 and Joshua 5:10?
2. Describe the Battle of Jericho.
3. What was the significance of Ai? Who were the Mitanni?
4. Describe the Battle of Ai.
5. Briefly describe some artifacts found at Jericho and Ai.
6. Do these artifacts support Biblical text?
7. Describe Jubilee cycles and their relationship to Joshua 5:10.
8. Who is Rahab and who did she have a child with?

Does archaeology prove the Bible? This is the wrong question to ask. The better question to ask is if external evidence is consistent with Biblical text. There is good evidence that is consistent with Biblical text. Much happened in 1406 BC. The Israelites entered Canaan, Jericho was destroyed, Ai was destroyed, and the Jubilee cycles began. Dr Bryant Wood is an archaeologist who specializes in the study of Jericho and Ai. He has clearly stated with evidence to back him up that there is a significant amount of archaeological evidence that is consistent with Biblical text.

Timeline and Chronology:
1378 BC: Death of Joshua
1406 BC, Summer: Destruction of Ai
1406 BC, Nisan 28: Destruction of Jericho
1406 BC, Nisan 14: Observance of Passover by Joshua at Gilgal
1488 BC: Birth of Joshua

Moses, 10 Plagues, Exodus from Egypt, Kohen Gene (1446 BC)

Headline: Moses, 10 Plagues, Exodus from Egypt, Amenhotep II, Aaron and the Kohen Gene (1529 BC – 1446 BC)

Image: Moses Aaron Exodus from Egypt


Date Range: 1529 BC – 1446 BC

People: Aaron, Amenhotep II, Moses

The date and even the existence of the 10th Plague of Egypt is one of the most debated subjects in Biblical history. Many state that the Exodus occurred during the reign of Ramesses II (3rd Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty), and then they add that there is no evidence of the Exodus at this time. The simple answer to that is that they are looking in the wrong place at the wrong time. There is ample evidence, a handful of which is discussed here, to strongly suggest that the Exodus occurred during Year 7 of the reign of Amenhotep II (7th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty). Again, many date his reign from 1427 BC – 1401 BC, but there is significant evidence to conclude that there was a short (two-year) co-regency with his father, Thutmose III, and that he rose to power in the 1450s BC. His unsuccessful expedition into Syria in April of Year 7, his capture of 101,128 slaves in Year 9 (to replace those who left in the Exodus), numerous skin lesions found on his mummified body, and the early death of his first-born son all corroborate Biblical text. 1 Kings 6:1 and Exodus 12 point to the date of Nisan 14, 1446 BC, for the date of the 10th Plague of Egypt.

Another interesting point is that of the Cohen / Kohen Gene. Kohen means “priest” in Hebrew. The Bible describes the role of priests in great detail, and that they are descendants of Aaron, the brother of Moses. DNA testing has concluded that almost 99% of males tested with the Cohen surname contained a specific genetic marker. This genetic marker is significantly less common in non-Cohen males of similar ancestry. Genetics demonstrates what the Bible states: The Kohen priestly line began with Aaron – brother of Moses – and continued for generations. Some of his DNA has been found in modern generations of males.

Bible Verses: Genesis 47:11, Exodus 1:11, 2:1-5, 2:11-15, 7:7, Exodus 11-12, Acts 7:22-24

Amenhotep II
Amenhotep II and the Historicity of the Exodus Pharaoh
Bible Project Video: Exodus 1-18
Discovery of the Cohen Gene
Hebrew Meaning of the Name Moses Video
Map of Ancient Egypt
Map of Mesopotamia c. 1400 BC
Royal Precinct at Rameses
Was Moses’ Name Egyptian?

Topic Questions:
1. How old was Moses when he and Aaron confronted Pharaoh?
2. What does the name Moses mean?
3. What is the date of the Exodus?
4. Who was the Pharaoh of the Exodus?
5. Who found Moses in the water?
6. What is the significance of the name “Cohen?”

This article demonstrates the importance of good evidence, good critical thinking skills, and having the proper worldview. If you allow yourself to have an open and honest look at the evidence presented, it would be dishonest to state that there is no evidence of the Exodus from Egypt. Although there is no artifact stating that the Exodus occurred during the first full Moon in Year 7 of the reign of Amenhotep II, there is ample evidence to demonstrate that the information provided in the Bible is consistent with a mass exodus that occurred during Year 7 of the reign of Amenhotep II.

Timeline and Chronology:
1446 BC, Nisan 17: Crossing the Red Sea
1446 BC, Nisan 14: 10th Plague of Egypt / Year 7 of Amenhotep II
1486 BC: Moses Fled to Midian
1526 BC: Birth of Moses
1529 BC: Birth of Aaron

King Solomon’s Temple Began Construction, 1 Kings 6:1 (966 BC)

Headline: Melchizedek, Akedah / Binding of Isaac, Jacob’s Dream, Moses’ Tabernacle, Araunah’s Threshing Floor, Solomon’s Temple, Crucifixion of Jesus, Christians

Image: Solomon Temple


Date Range: 970 BC – 931 BC

People: Aaron, Abraham, Araunah the Jebusite, David, Isaac, Jacob, Jesus, Melchizedek, Moses, Paul, Solomon

Solomon was the third son of David and Bathsheba. He reigned for forty years (970 BC – 931 BC). After his death in 931 BC, Israel was split into the Northern Kingdom of Israel under Jeroboam I and the Southern Kingdom of Judah under Rehoboam. Many Biblical scholars agree that Solomon became king in 970 BC, and wrote three books of the Bible: Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon. 1 Kings 6:1 is a critical verse for developing timelines and chronologies during the time of Moses and the Patriarchs. It states that in the 2nd month of the 4th year of the reign of King Solomon, in the 480th year after the Exodus from Egypt, Solomon began to build the temple. This translates to April / May 966 BC, and places the 10th Plague of Exodus on Nisan 14, 1446 BC.

The concept of the temple / tabernacle unfolded throughout the entirety of Scripture. Abraham met Melchizedek king of Salem in the Valley of Shaveh (King’s Valley) (Genesis 14). Abraham bound Isaac for sacrifice on Mt Moriah (Genesis 22), which is the same location as Golgotha, Araunah’s threshing floor (2 Samuel 24), and the Temple Mount. Jacob had his dream somewhere northeast of Beersheba, probably near Jerusalem (Genesis 28). Moses designed a tabernacle based upon instructions provided by God which travelled with them through their journey in the wilderness (Exodus 26). Solomon built the temple on the Temple Mount (1 Kings 6). Jesus was crucified on Golgotha / Mt Moriah / Temple Mount, and has been associated with the order of Melchizedek (John 19, Hebrews 7). Disciples of Jesus the Christ are called to be a living sacrifice (Romans 12).

Bible Verses: Genesis 14:17-24, Genesis 22:2, Genesis 28:10-22, Exodus 26, 2 Samuel 24, 1 Kings 6, 1 Kings 7:21, 2 Chronicles 3:1, John 2:13-25, Romans 12, Hebrews 7

From Abraham to Paul: A Biblical Chronology
Jacob’s Dream Ladder and It’s Relationship to the Temple’s Holy of Holies
Jewish Priestly Garments – Exodus 28 Video
Solomon’s Temple Explained Video
Who Was Melchizedek and What Is the Order of Melchizedek?

Topic Questions:
1. What is the importance of the Order of Melchizedek?
2. Describe the Binding of Isaac / Akedah.
3. What is the significance of Jacob’s dream?
4. Who was Araunah and what does his name mean?
5. When did Solomon begin construction of the temple?
6. What are the names of the two large pillars at the entrance to the temple?
7. Where did the crucifixion of Jesus take place?
8. Describe the importance of Romans 12 to disciples of Christ.

Adam was the first representative of God on earth. He, however, did what was right in his own eyes. Adam and Eve were removed from the Garden of Eden. Yet God created a way for mankind to return to a relationship with Himself. The Bible in its entirety is about the character of God, His desire to have a relationship with us, what He has done to retore that relationship, and what we must do to accept the gift of having a close relationship with our Creator. Melchizedek, the binding of Isaac, Jacob’s dream, Moses’ tabernacle, Araunah’s threshing floor, and Solomon’s temple all describe what Jesus did on the cross for us. Our role is to accept the free gift of salvation and demonstrate it to others.

Timeline and Chronology
931 BC: Death of Solomon / Israel Split Into Northern and Southern Kingdoms
966 BC, Ziv: Start Construction of Solomon’s Temple
970 BC: Death of David / Year 1 of Solomon
1446 BC, Nisan 14: 10th Plague in Egypt

Great Jewish Revolt, Josephus, Temple Destruction, Masada, Vesuvius Eruption (66 AD – 79 AD)

Headline: First Jewish-Roman War / Great Jewish Revolt, Flavius Josephus, Year of the Four Emperors, Destruction of the Second Temple, Masada, Vesuvius Eruption, and Chronology of the New Testament Books (66 AD – 79 AD).

Image: Flavius Josephus


Date Range: 66 AD – 79 AD

People: James, Jesus, John the Apostle, John the Baptist, Josephus, Nero, Pontius Pilate, Titus, Vespasian

The First Jewish-Roman War / Great Jewish Revolt began in 66 AD as religious tensions between Greeks and Jews, which escalated to protests and open revolution against Roman taxes. In 68 AD, Roman Senator Gaius Julius Vindex led an open revolt against Emperor Nero (who committed suicide with assistance). Galba was declared emperor by the Roman Senate, but he could not hold onto power. After the death of four emperors within a very short time, Vespasian of the family Flavius rose to power in 69 AD. The Flavian dynasty encompassed Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian, and lasted until 96 AD. It was Titus under the authority of Vespasian that desecrated the Second Temple and destroyed the city of Jerusalem in 70 AD. In 79 AD, Mt Vesuvius, near the city of Naples, erupted and poured ash 21 miles into the air at a rate of about 1.5 million tons per second. The artifacts found at Pompeii and Herculaneum give us a glimpse as to what life was like at this time.

Bible Verses: Daniel 9:25-26, Daniel 11:31, Daniel 12:11, Matthew 17:24-27, Matthew 24, Luke 19:41-44, Luke 21:5-28, Acts 12:1-3, 2 Corinthians 11:32, Revelation 1:9

Antiquities of the Jews: Book 18 Chapter 3
Antiquities of the Jews: Book 18 Chapter 5
Antiquities of the Jews: Book 20 Chapter 9
Chronology of the New Testament Books
Destruction of the Second Temple
Great Jewish Revolt (66 AD – 70 AD)
Pompeii Artifacts
Year of the Four Emperors

Topic Questions:
1. Excluding the books written by John, when were the books of the New Testament written?
2. What was Judea like between 66 AD and 70 AD?
3. Compare the lives of John and Josephus.
4. What was the importance of Mt. Vesuvius?

Two famous Jews lived very different lives during this time period: John the apostle of Jesus and Flavius Josephus the military leader. Josephus was born c. 37 AD into wealth and status. He was the second-born son of Matthias of the Jewish priestly line of Jehoiarib. His mother was from the former ruling Hasmonean dynasty (140 BC – 37 BC). He was a descendent of the High Priest of Israel Jonathan Apphus (161 BC – 143 BC), who was a leader of the Maccabean Revolt (167 BC – 160 BC). The 47-day Siege of Yodfat (Jotapata) led by Roman General Vespasian resulted in the destruction of the town, death of most of its inhabitants, and the enslavement of the rest (including its military commander Josephus) on July 2, 67 AD. Josephus eventually served under Vespasian and Titus. He published The Jewish War c. 78 AD and the Antiquities of the Jews c. 93 AD, which are primary historical records of the 1st Century AD in the region of Judea.

John the Apostle was a first-cousin of Jesus. His father Zebedee was a fisherman, and his mother Salome was the sister of Jesus’ mother Mary. Based on Biblical text and cultural context, we know that John was over 13 years of age when Jesus called him to be a disciple and less than 20 when Jesus paid the temple tax described in Matthew 17:24-27. Church tradition places him as one of the youngest of the disciples. This would place his birth c. 15 AD in Bethsaida on the north shore of the Sea of Galilee. He moved to Ephesus some time after Paul established the church there (after 55 AD) and before the fall of Jerusalem in 70 AD. He wrote John, 1 John, 2 John, and 3 John in Ephesus. He wrote Revelation while exiled on Patmos by Emperor Domitian. Thus, he penned 5 of the 27 books of the New Testament between 80 AD and 100 AD. Both Flavius Josephus and John the Apostle died c. 100 AD.

Timeline and Chronology:
100 AD: Death of John the Apostle and Flavius Josephus
96 AD, September 18: Death of Emperor Domitian
94 AD: John the Apostle exiled to Patmos. Revelation written.
c. 93 AD: Antiquities of the Jews published by Josephus
– John, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John written in Ephesus by John the Apostle
81 AD, September 13: Death of Emperor Titus
79 AD, August 24: Mount Vesuvius erupted
79 AD, June 23: Death of Emperor Vespasian
c. 78 AD: The Jewish War published by Josephus
73 AD: Capture of Masada from the Sicarii zealots
70 AD, September 8: Destruction of the Second Temple
69 AD, December 20: Death of Emperor Vitellius
69 AD, April 16: Death of Emperor Otho
69 AD, January 15: Death of Emperor Galba
68 AD, June 9: Death of Emperor Nero
67 AD, July 2: Siege of Yodfat (Jotapata) ended, Capture of Josephus
67 AD, May: Vespasian invaded Galilee
66 AD: Beginning of the Great Jewish Revolt / First Jewish-Roman War

Daniel 70 Weeks, Birth and Death of Jesus (2 BC – 32 AD)

Headline: Historical, astronomical, and Biblical evidence shows that Jesus was born on Tishri 1, 2 BC and died on Nisan 14, 32 AD.

Image: Jesus Triumphant Entry Jerusalem


Date Range: 2 BC – 32 AD

People: Annas, Artaxerxes I, Augustus Caesar, Caiaphas, Daniel, Elizabeth, Herod the Great, Jesus, John the Baptist, Joseph, Lazarus, Mary, Nehemiah, Philip, Pontius Pilate, Quirinius, Tiberius Caesar, Zechariah

Biblical accounts show that John the Baptist was the son of Zechariah, who was of the division of Abijah. This meant that Zechariah served at the Temple on Week 8 or about 56 to 62 days after the Jewish New Year (Nisan 1). This means that John the Baptist was born in the spring. Jesus was born about six months later in the fall. King Herod the Great died on January 10, 1 BC. Jesus was less than 2 years old when Herod died. There was a unique arrangement of the stars and planets between 3 BC and the end of 2 BC, which caught the attention of the Magi. Based upon several points of discussion, John the Baptist was born on or near Passover 2 BC, and Jesus was born on or near the Feast of Trumpets, 2 BC.

John the Baptist began his ministry during the 15th year of Roman Emperor Tiberius. Jesus started His ministry around the age of 30. This means that the miracle associated with the wedding in Cana occurred on Nisan 10, 30 AD. Early historians placed the crucifixion of Jesus Christ in the 4th year of the 202nd Greek Olympiad and during the 18th year of Tiberius. Nehemiah 2:1 places the Artaxerxes Decree in the month of Nisan. John 12:1 places the Triumphal Entry and crucifixion in the month of Nisan. These, along with predictions related to the 70 Weeks of Daniel, place the Triumphal Entry into Jerusalem on Nisan 10, 32 AD, His crucifixion on Nisan 14, 32 AD, and His resurrection on Nisan 17, 32 AD.

Bible Verses: 1 Chronicles 24:7-19, Nehemiah 2:1, Daniel 9:25, Mark 15:33-39, Luke 1:5, 1:26-27, 2:1-4, 3:1-2, 3:23, 19:28-40, John 2:1-13, 6:4, 12:1, Revelation 12:1-6

Confirming the Prophetic Date of 445 BC
Daniel’s 70 Weeks
Lunar Eclipse of Josephus
Miracles at the Crucifixion of Christ
New Light on the Book of Daniel from the Dead Sea Scrolls
Prophetic Year Is 360 Days
Star of Bethlehem
When Herod the Great Died

Topic Questions:
1. When was the Artaxerxes I decree, 445 BC or 444 BC?
2. What date does the 69 weeks or 173,880 days of Daniel fall on? What does this day represent?
3. What are the dates of the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus?
4. What is John the Baptist’s birthdate?
5. What is Jesus’ birthdate? At what age did Jesus start His ministry?
6. When did King Herod the Great die?
7: What is the significance of the wedding at Cana?

God’s perfect timing. There are many opinions as to when, or even if, Jesus lived. The Bible gives very specific information as to when some events occurred, such as the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar in Luke 3, 69 weeks of Daniel 9, and 9th hour in Mark 15. Combine this with astronomical, historical, and archaeological information collected and analyzed over the years, and we have a good idea as to when Jesus was born and when He was crucified.

Timeline and Chronology:
37 AD, March 16: Death of Tiberius Caesar
32 AD, Sivan 6: Day of Pentecost / Feast of Weeks
32 AD, Nisan 17: Resurrection of Jesus
32 AD: Nisan 14: Crucifixion of Jesus
32 AD, Nisan 10: Triumphal Entry of Jesus into Jerusalem
30 AD, Nisan 10: Jesus turned water into wine / Wedding at Cana.
29 AD: John the Baptist Began Ministry
14 AD, August 19: Death of Caesar Augustus
1 BC, December 29: Partial Lunar Eclipse
1 BC, January 10: Total Lunar Eclipse / Death of Herod the Great
2 BC, Tishri 1: Birth of Jesus
2 BC, Nisan 14: Birth of John the Baptist
4 BC, March 13: Partial Lunar Eclipse
5 BC, September 15: Total Lunar Eclipse
5 BC, March 23: Total Lunar Eclipse