Jeroboam II, Uzziah, Earthquake, Amos, Bur Sagale Solar Eclipse, Jonah, Hosea (796 BC – 753 BC)

Headline: Amaziah, Jeroboam II, Azariah / Uzziah, Earthquake, Amos, Bur Sagale Solar Eclipse, Jonah, Hosea (796 BC – 753 BC)

Image: Amos Earthquake Epicenter 760 BC Lebanon


Date Range: 796 BC – 753 BC

People: Amaziah, Amos, Ashur-dan III, Azariah / Uzziah, Hosea, Jeroboam II, Jonah, Sarduri II, Shoshenq V, Takelot III

Amos 1:1 states that Amos began the work as God’s prophet two years before the earthquake during the reigns of Uzziah king of Judah, and Jeroboam II king of Israel. This verse is the key to unlocking much. Based on this verse, the earthquake occurred during the reigns of Uzziah and Jeroboam II. 2 Kings 14:23, 2 Kings 15:1, and 2 Chronicles 26:3 provide a bit more information. Jeroboam II began to reign in the 15th year of Amaziah, king of Judah and father of Uzziah. He reigned for 41 years. Azariah / Uzziah, son of Amaziah, began to reign at the age of 16 and reigned for 52 years. The following verses help develop a timeline between Jehu (841 BC – 814 BC) and Jeroboam II (793 BC – 753 BC) / Uzziah (792 BC – 739 BC):

2 Kings 12:1 – Year 7 of Jehu = Year 1 of Jehoash.
2 Kings 13:1 – Year 23 of Joash (Jehoash) = Year 1 of Jehoahaz.
2 Kings 13:10 – Year 37 of Joash = Year 1 of Jehoash.
2 Kings 14:1 – Year 2 of Joash son of Joahaz, king of Israel, Amaziah, son of Joash, king of Judah, began to reign.

This is where things get a bit tricky. Let’s assume for a moment that Jeroboam II began his reign in 793 BC (which most scholars agree). On face value, 2 Kings 15:1 would lead us to conclude that Uzziah began his 52 year reign in the 27th year of the reign of Jeroboam II. This would mean that Uzziah reigned from approximately 767 BC to 715 BC. This statement is in direct conflict with 2 Kings 18:9-10, which states that Hezekiah was king of Judah and Hoshea was king of Israel when the Assyrians captured the Northern Kingdom of Israel in 722 BC.

2 Chronicles 25:23 provides the solution to this apparent conflict. 2 Chronicles 25:1 states that Amaziah was king for 29 years. However, 2 Chronicles 25:23 states that Amaziah was captured in battle about 4 years into his reign by King Joash of Israel. It was at this time that Uzziah was made king of Judah at the age of 16. There was a co-regency of about 25 years for Amaziah and Azariah / Uzziah. Amaziah began to reign in 796 BC, and Uzziah became co-regent at the age of 16 in 792 BC. Jeroboam II’s 41 year reign was 793 BC to 753 BC. Amaziah died in 767 BC at which time Uzziah became the sole king of Judah until his death in about 739 BC.

This information now gives us a time frame for the earthquake. Amos 1:! states that is was during the times of kings Uzziah and Jeroboam II. Uzziah became sole regent in 767 BC and Jeroboam II died in 753 BC. Most scholars agree that there was an earthquake between 7.8 and 8.2 on the Richter Scale centered near modern day Bar Elias, Lebanon, which occurred about 760 BC. As a comparison, the San Francisco earthquake on April 18, 1906, was 7.8 on the Richter Scale. The Bar Elias earthquake is also the same time period of the Bur Sagale solar eclipse of June 15, 763 BC.

Ashur-dan III was the king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from 773 BC to 755 BC. Aakheperre Shoshenq V (767 BC – 730 BC) of the 22nd Dynasty was pharaoh of Lower Egypt. Usermaatre Setepenamun Takelot III (774 BC – 759 BC) of the 23rd Dynasty was pharaoh of Upper Egypt. Very little is known about the Assyrian and Egyptian Empires during this time. Both empires were in decline. With both empires in decline, it allowed the Urartian Kingdom in Anatolia and Israel / Judah in the Levant to flourish. The Urartian Kingdom under Sarduri II (764 BC – 735 BC), Israel under Jeroboam II, and Judah under Uzziah were expanding.

2 Kings 14:23-25 states that Jonah lived during the time of Jeroboam II. Hosea 1:1 states that Hosea the prophet lived during the time of kings Jeroboam II, Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah. This means that Amos, Hosea, and Jonah were all prophets during the reigns of Jeroboam II and Uzziah.

Bible Verses: 2 Kings 12:1, 13:1, 13:10, 14:1, 14:23-25, 15:1, 18:9-10, 19:35-37, 2 Chronicles 25:1, 25:23-25, 26:1-3, Hosea 1:1, Amos 1:1

1906 San Francisco Earthquake Video
22nd Dynasty of Egypt
23rd Dynasty of Egypt
Amos Earthquake Evidence
Amos Earthquake Impact
Ashur-dan III
Divided Kingdom (pages 14-18)
King Uzziah Expansionist Policy
King Uzziah Digging for Truth Video
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Sarduri II

Topic Questions:
1. What year was the earthquake, and how strong was it?
2. Where did the earthquake occur?
3. What is Bur Sagale, and when did it happen?
4. What major events occurred during the times of Amos and Jonah?

Kings Jeroboam II and Uzziah both had long reigns. Assyria was weak and ruled by King Ashur-dan III. Egypt was weak and ruled by Shoshenq V and Takelot III. The kingdoms of Israel and Judah expanded. Things shifted in the 760s BC. King Amaziah died in 767 BC, there was a significant solar eclipse in 763 BC, and there was a massive earthquake centered in Lebanon circa 760 BC. This is the times and environment in which God’s prophets Amos and Jonah served.

Timeline and Chronology:
796 BC: Year 1 of King Amaziah of Judah
793 BC: Year 1 of King Jeroboam II of Israel
792 BC: Capture of King Amaziah / Year 1 of Reign of King Azariah of Judah
774 BC: Year 1 of Takelot III
773 BC: Year 1 of Assyrian King Ashur-dan III
767 BC: Death of King Amaziah of Judah / Year 1 of Shoshenq V
763 BC, June 15: Bur Sagale Solar Eclipse
760 (+/- 7) BC: Earthquake of Amos 1:1
759 BC: Death of Takelot III
755 BC: Death of Assyrian King Ashur-dan III
753 BC: Death of King Jeroboam II of Israel
739 BC: Death of Uzziah
730 BC: Death of Shoshenq V

King Solomon’s Temple Began Construction, 1 Kings 6:1 (966 BC)

Headline: Melchizedek, Akedah / Binding of Isaac, Jacob’s Dream, Moses’ Tabernacle, Araunah’s Threshing Floor, Solomon’s Temple, Crucifixion of Jesus, Christians

Image: Solomon Temple


Date Range: 970 BC – 931 BC

People: Aaron, Abraham, Araunah the Jebusite, David, Isaac, Jacob, Jesus, Melchizedek, Moses, Paul, Solomon

Solomon was the third son of David and Bathsheba. He reigned for forty years (970 BC – 931 BC). After his death in 931 BC, Israel was split into the Northern Kingdom of Israel under Jeroboam I and the Southern Kingdom of Judah under Rehoboam. Many Biblical scholars agree that Solomon became king in 970 BC, and wrote three books of the Bible: Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon. 1 Kings 6:1 is a critical verse for developing timelines and chronologies during the time of Moses and the Patriarchs. It states that in the 2nd month of the 4th year of the reign of King Solomon, in the 480th year after the Exodus from Egypt, Solomon began to build the temple. This translates to April / May 966 BC, and places the 10th Plague of Exodus on Nisan 14, 1446 BC.

The concept of the temple / tabernacle unfolded throughout the entirety of Scripture. Abraham met Melchizedek king of Salem in the Valley of Shaveh (King’s Valley) (Genesis 14). Abraham bound Isaac for sacrifice on Mt Moriah (Genesis 22), which is the same location as Golgotha, Araunah’s threshing floor (2 Samuel 24), and the Temple Mount. Jacob had his dream somewhere northeast of Beersheba, probably near Jerusalem (Genesis 28). Moses designed a tabernacle based upon instructions provided by God which travelled with them through their journey in the wilderness (Exodus 26). Solomon built the temple on the Temple Mount (1 Kings 6). Jesus was crucified on Golgotha / Mt Moriah / Temple Mount, and has been associated with the order of Melchizedek (John 19, Hebrews 7). Disciples of Jesus the Christ are called to be a living sacrifice (Romans 12).

Bible Verses: Genesis 14:17-24, Genesis 22:2, Genesis 28:10-22, Exodus 26, 2 Samuel 24, 1 Kings 6, 1 Kings 7:21, 2 Chronicles 3:1, John 2:13-25, Romans 12, Hebrews 7

From Abraham to Paul: A Biblical Chronology
Jacob’s Dream Ladder and It’s Relationship to the Temple’s Holy of Holies
Jewish Priestly Garments – Exodus 28 Video
Solomon’s Temple Explained Video
Who Was Melchizedek and What Is the Order of Melchizedek?

Topic Questions:
1. What is the importance of the Order of Melchizedek?
2. Describe the Binding of Isaac / Akedah.
3. What is the significance of Jacob’s dream?
4. Who was Araunah and what does his name mean?
5. When did Solomon begin construction of the temple?
6. What are the names of the two large pillars at the entrance to the temple?
7. Where did the crucifixion of Jesus take place?
8. Describe the importance of Romans 12 to disciples of Christ.

Adam was the first representative of God on earth. He, however, did what was right in his own eyes. Adam and Eve were removed from the Garden of Eden. Yet God created a way for mankind to return to a relationship with Himself. The Bible in its entirety is about the character of God, His desire to have a relationship with us, what He has done to retore that relationship, and what we must do to accept the gift of having a close relationship with our Creator. Melchizedek, the binding of Isaac, Jacob’s dream, Moses’ tabernacle, Araunah’s threshing floor, and Solomon’s temple all describe what Jesus did on the cross for us. Our role is to accept the free gift of salvation and demonstrate it to others.

Timeline and Chronology
931 BC: Death of Solomon / Israel Split Into Northern and Southern Kingdoms
966 BC, Ziv: Start Construction of Solomon’s Temple
970 BC: Death of David / Year 1 of Solomon
1446 BC, Nisan 14: 10th Plague in Egypt

Neco, Nebuchadnezzar II, Siege of Jerusalem (605 BC – 587 BC)

Headline: Jehoiachin (Jeconiah), Jehoiakim, Nebuchadnezzar II, Neco = Necho II, Psamtik II, Zedekiah, Siege of Jerusalem, and the End of the Southern Kingdom of Judah (605 BC – 587 BC).

Image: Nebuchadnezzar II King Babylon


Date Range: 605 BC – 587 BC

People: Jehoiachin (Jeconiah), Jehoiakim, Nebuchadnezzar II, Neco = Necho II, Psamtik II, Zedekiah

Nebuchadnezzar II became king of the Babylonian Empire in 605 BC after the death of his father (Nabopolassar) and after he defeated Necho II and the Egyptian army at the Battle of Carchemish. In 597 BC, he captured the king of Judah, Jeconiah, and in 587 BC, Nebuchadnezzar II destroyed Jerusalem and gained control of the Southern Kingdom of Judah.

Bible Verses: 2 Kings 23:28-35, 2 Kings 24, 25:1-21, 2 Chronicles 35:20-27, 36:1-21, Daniel 4:1-5, Jeremiah 46:2

Battle of Carchemish
Battle of Carchemish Video
Jehoiachin (Jeconiah)
Nebuchadnezzar II
Nebuchadnezzar II Video
Necho II
Neo-Babylonian Empire
Psamtik II
Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC)

In the time period between 605 BC and 587 BC, there were a number of significant interactions between Assyria, Babylonian Empire, Egypt, and Judah. The end result was the destruction of Jerusalem and the capture of Judah. These events can be easily placed into a timeline, and they are consistent with Biblical text.

Timeline and Chronology:
587 BC, Av 9 (Tisha B’Av): Siege and capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar II.
589 BC: End of reign of Psamtik II.
595 BC: End of reign of Necho II. Start of reign of Psamtik II.
597 BC, March: Capture of Jeconiah. Zedekiah appointed king by Nebuchadnezzar II.
598 BC, December: Start of reign of Jeconiah.
605 BC: Battle of Carchemish. Start of reign of Nebuchadnezzar II.
609 BC, Tishri: Pharaoh Necho II made Eliakim / Jehoiakim king of Judah.
609 BC, Tammuz: Shallum / Jehoahaz III Succeeded King Josiah.
610 BC: Start of reign of Necho II (Dynasty 26).

Shalmaneser III, Jehu (859 BC – 841 BC)

Headline: Shalmaneser III, Black Obelisk, Jehu, Osorkon II, and the Battle of Qarqar (859 BC – 841 BC).

Image: Black Obelisk Shalmaneser III

Video: King Jehu and The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

Date Range: 859 BC – 841 BC

People: Ahab, Hadadezer, Jehu, Osorkon II, Shalmaneser III

There are a number of kingdoms and empires that interact during this 18 year time period (859 BC – 841 BC), including: Ammon, Aram-Damascus, Assyria, Edom, Egypt, Israel, Judah, Moab, Phoenicia, and Qedar. Shalmaneser III rose to power in 859 BC, the Battle of QarQar (which involved numerous kings) occurred in 853 BC, and Jehu rose to power in 841 BC.

Bible Verses: 1 Kings 16:29-31, 1 Kings 20, 1 Kings 22:29-40, 2 Kings 3, 2 Kings 9, 2 Chronicles 21:5

Ammon, Edom, Mesha Stele, Moab, Nabatea
Assyrian Empire Map
Battle of Qarqar
Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III
King Jehu: An Archaeological Biography
Kurkh Monoliths
Osorkon II
Shalmaneser III
Tel Dan Stele
Tyre and Sidon / Phoenicia

The numerous artifacts found throughout the entire region, along with many interactions between many nations, provide significant evidence to piece together a regional sequence of events. If a handful of these artifacts / events can be reliably dated, it fixes the entire sequence of events into a specific time period. What the Bible says about this time period is consistent with what the evidence states about this time period.

Timeline and Chronology
824 BC: Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III.
840 BC: Mesha Stele.
841 BC: Year 1 of King Jehu (2 Kings 9-12) / Year 18 of Shalmaneser III.
c. 842 BC: Tel Dan Stele.
852 BC: Kurkh Monoliths.
853 BC: Battle of Qarqar.
859 BC: Year 1 of Shalmaneser III.

Pul, Fall of Israel (727 BC – 722 BC)

Headline: Pul, Menahem, Pekahiah, Pekah, Hoshea, and the Fall of the Northern Kingdom of Israel (722 BC).

Image: Tiglath-Pileser III King Assyria 745-727


Date Range: 745 BC – 722 BC

People: Ahaz, Azariah (Uzziah), Hosea, Hoshea, Jotham, Menahem, Osorkon IV (So), Pekah, Pekahiah, Pul = Tiglath-Pileser III, Sargon II, Shalmaneser V.

Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III rose to power in 745 BC while Jotham was co-regent with Uzziah in Judah and three years before Menahem became king of Israel. Tiglath-Pileser III, also known as Pul in the Bible, conquered much of Mesopotamia within a few short years. During Menahem’s reign, the Assyrians were invited to pass through the Northern Kingdom of Israel to invade Aram-Damascus ruled by King Rezin. To avoid open warfare, Menahem was forced to pay tribute of a thousand talents of silver to Tiglath-Pileser III and Assyria.

In 732 BC, Pekah allied with Rezin against Assyria. King Ahaz did not ally with Israel and Aram-Damascus. As a result, Ahaz paid tribute to Tigleth-Pileser III, Aram-Damascus was destroyed, and King Rezin was executed. Pul died in 727 BC. Five years later, Sargon II destroyed the Northern Kingdom of Israel in 722 BC and deported its population.

Bible Verses: 2 Kings 15:17-31, 2 Kings 16-17, 1 Chronicles 5:1-10, 1 Chronicles 5:26, 2 Chronicles 28:16-21, Hosea 1:1

Ahaz / Jehoahaz II of Judah
Northern Kingdom of Israel
Osorkon IV
Sargon II
Shalmaneser V
Tiglath-Pileser III
Tiglath-Pileser III Video
Uzziah / Azariah

Tiglath-Pileser III (Pul) represented a clear and present danger to Israel and Judah. Both Menahem of Israel and Ahaz of Judah paid tribute to Assyria to avoid being attacked. This is just like paying a bully not to pick a fight with you. The bully is temporarily appeased, not defeated. Eventually, the King of Assyria attacked and destroyed Aram-Damascus in 732 BC and the Northern Kingdom of Israel in 722 BC. The prophet Hosea spoke about this impending doom comparing Israel to a harlot. Instead of embracing God, Israel turned its back to God. When Sargon II defeated Israel, he deported numerous Israelites eastward out of the land and imported many from the east. This permanently changed the culture of the Northern Kingdom and it ceased to exist as a nation that revered Jehovah.

Timeline and Chronology
722 BC: Sargon II became king of Assyria / Northern Kingdom fell (2 Kings 17).
727 BC, December 30: Shalmaneser V became king of Assyria.
730 BC: Osorkon IV became pharaoh of Egypt.
732 BC: Jehoahaz II became king of Judah.
745 BC, April 15: Tiglath-Pileser III became king of Assyria.

Shishak, Jeroboam, Rehoboam (931 BC – 925 BC)

Headline: Shishak, Jeroboam, Rehoboam, and the Beginning of the Divided Kingdoms of Israel and Judah (931 BC – 925 BC).

Image: Shishak Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I Pharaoh Egypt 22


Date Range: 931 BC – 925 BC

People: Jeroboam I, Rehoboam, Shishak = Shoshenq I, Solomon

At the end of King Solomon’s life, and shortly after, there were interactions between the king of Israel, the king’s children, and the pharaoh of Egypt (Shishak = Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I). This is the time when the United Kingdom of Israel split into the Northern Kingdom of Israel under Jeroboam I and the Southern Kingdom of Judah under Rehoboam. Some information regarding these people and events are recorded in the Bible.

Bible Verses: 1 Kings 11:9-43, 1 Kings 12, 1 Kings 14:21-31, 2 Chronicles 12

Bubastite Portal
Pharaoh Shishak Video
Shoshenq I

Shishak of the Bible is Shoshenq I, the Berber / Meshwesh founder of the 22nd Dynasty of Egypt. King Solomon, at the end of his reign, treated the Israelites harshly. Rehoboam wanted to continue this harsh treatment instead of listening to the wants and needs of the people of Israel. Rehoboam was never able to gain any significant loyalty or support from the people. For this and because he turned away from God, the United Kingdom of Israel ended.

Timeline and Chronology
926 BC: Siege of Jerusalem by Shoshenq I / Year 5 of Rehoboam.
931 BC: Year 1 of Rehoboam / Jeroboam I (1 Kings 11-14).
943 BC: Year 1 of Shoshenq I.